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OBJECTIVE To review the effect of supplemental calcium on blood pressure. DATA SOURCE We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for 1996 to May 1994. We contacted authors of eligible trials to ensure accuracy and completeness of data and to identify unpublished trials. STUDY SELECTION We included any study in which investigators randomized people to calcium(More)
BACKGROUND Transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is a risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in trauma patients. Yet, there is a paucity of information regarding the risk of ARDS with incremental PRBCs exposure. METHODS For this retrospective analysis, eligible patients from National Study on Costs and Outcomes of Trauma were(More)
Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in transplanted livers contributes to organ dysfunction and failure and is characterized in part by loss of NO bioavailability. Inhalation of NO is nontoxic and at high concentrations (80 ppm) inhibits IR injury in extrapulmonary tissues. In this prospective, blinded, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the hypothesis(More)
Local vasodilation in response to hypoxia is a fundamental physiologic response ensuring oxygen delivery to tissues under metabolic stress. Recent studies identify a role for the red blood cell (RBC), with hemoglobin the hypoxic sensor. Herein, we investigate the mechanisms regulating this process and explore the relative roles of adenosine triphosphate,(More)
Appreciating that CO2 modifies the chemical reactivity of nitric oxide (NO)-derived inflammatory oxidants, we investigated whether hypercapnia would modulate pulmonary inflammatory responses. Rabbits (n = 72) were ventilated with approximately 7-ml/kg tidal volume for 6 hours. Animals were randomized to one of the following conditions: eucapnia (Pa(CO2) at(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical utility of bronchoscopy with protected brush catheter (PBC) and BAL for patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Ten tertiary care ICUs in Canada. PATIENTS Ninety-two mechanically ventilated patients with a clinical suspicion of VAP who underwent bronchoscopy were(More)
Ventilator strategies allowing for increases in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) tensions (hypercapnia) are being emphasized to ameliorate the consequences of inflammatory-mediated lung injury. Inflammatory responses lead to the generation of reactive species including superoxide (O(2)(-)), nitric oxide (.NO), and their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The reaction(More)
Ischemia-reperfusion plays a major role in the injury experienced by the liver during transplantation. Much work has been done recently investigating the role of redox species in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. As animal models are better characterized and developed, and more insights are gained into the pathophysiology of hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury(More)
BACKGROUND Human serum albumin is used clinically to maintain colloid osmotic pressure and is viewed to serve an antioxidant role in the vascular compartment via binding of redox-active metal complexes, transport of nitric oxide, and the oxidant-scavenging reactions of the single thiol of human serum albumin, cys34. Because of these potentially desirable(More)
ARDS is a disease process that is characterized by diffuse inflammation in the lung parenchyma. The involvement of inflammatory mediators in ARDS has been the subject of intense investigation, and oxidant-mediated tissue injury is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of ARDS. In response to various inflammatory stimuli, lung endothelial cells,(More)