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Appreciating that CO2 modifies the chemical reactivity of nitric oxide (NO)-derived inflammatory oxidants, we investigated whether hypercapnia would modulate pulmonary inflammatory responses. Rabbits (n = 72) were ventilated with approximately 7-ml/kg tidal volume for 6 hours. Animals were randomized to one of the following conditions: eucapnia (Pa(CO2) at(More)
BACKGROUND Transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is a risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in trauma patients. Yet, there is a paucity of information regarding the risk of ARDS with incremental PRBCs exposure. METHODS For this retrospective analysis, eligible patients from National Study on Costs and Outcomes of Trauma were(More)
ARDS is a disease process that is characterized by diffuse inflammation in the lung parenchyma. The involvement of inflammatory mediators in ARDS has been the subject of intense investigation, and oxidant-mediated tissue injury is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of ARDS. In response to various inflammatory stimuli, lung endothelial cells,(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the effect of supplemental calcium on blood pressure. DATA SOURCE We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for 1996 to May 1994. We contacted authors of eligible trials to ensure accuracy and completeness of data and to identify unpublished trials. STUDY SELECTION We included any study in which investigators randomized people to calcium(More)
Slices of the rabbit caudate nucleus were preincubated with 3H-dopamine or 3H-choline and then superfused and stimulated electrically. DiPr-5,6-ADTN reduced the stimulation-evoked overflow of tritium over the same concentration range, independently of whether slices had been preincubated with 3H-dopamine or 3H-choline, and the same was true for apomorphine,(More)
BACKGROUND Secondary brain injury, presumed secondary to ischemia, increases the mortality and morbidity of traumatic brain injury. Although many mechanisms appear to be involved, many potential ischemic insults results from changes in readily observable physiologic variables. METHODS A focused search of scientific articles published in English to(More)
Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in transplanted livers contributes to organ dysfunction and failure and is characterized in part by loss of NO bioavailability. Inhalation of NO is nontoxic and at high concentrations (80 ppm) inhibits IR injury in extrapulmonary tissues. In this prospective, blinded, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the hypothesis(More)
Ventilator strategies allowing for increases in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) tensions (hypercapnia) are being emphasized to ameliorate the consequences of inflammatory-mediated lung injury. Inflammatory responses lead to the generation of reactive species including superoxide (O(2)(-)), nitric oxide (.NO), and their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The reaction(More)
Lung injury often occurs after hepatoenteric ischemia, with xanthine oxidase (XO, an oxidant-generating enzyme), released from reperfusing liver and intestines, mediating a significant component of this injury. Since pentastarch administration decreases intestinal reperfusion injury, we determined whether resuscitation with PentaLyte (a(More)
Local vasodilation in response to hypoxia is a fundamental physiologic response ensuring oxygen delivery to tissues under metabolic stress. Recent studies identify a role for the red blood cell (RBC), with hemoglobin the hypoxic sensor. Herein, we investigate the mechanisms regulating this process and explore the relative roles of adenosine triphosphate,(More)