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During development, the formation of mature neural circuits requires the selective elimination of inappropriate synaptic connections. Here we show that C1q, the initiating protein in the classical complement cascade, is expressed by postnatal neurons in response to immature astrocytes and is localized to synapses throughout the postnatal CNS and retina.(More)
Complement-mediated tissue injury in humans occurs upon deposition of immune complexes, such as in autoimmune diseases and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Acute lung inflammatory injury in wild-type and C3-/- mice after deposition of IgG immune complexes was of equivalent intensity and was C5a dependent, but injury was greatly attenuated in Hc-/- mice(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in industrialized nations, affecting 30-50 million people worldwide. The earliest clinical hallmark of AMD is the presence of drusen, extracellular deposits that accumulate beneath the retinal pigmented epithelium. Although drusen nearly always precede and increase the(More)
Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized, we have come to realize that its functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris(More)
A homologue of complement component C3 (SpC3) has been cloned and sequenced from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The preprocessed, deduced protein size is estimated to be 186 kDa with a short leader and two chains, alpha and beta. There are cysteines in conserved positions for interchain disulfide bonding, and there is a conserved(More)
The involvement of complement-activation products in promoting tumor growth has not yet been recognized. Here we show that the generation of complement C5a in a tumor microenvironment enhanced tumor growth by suppressing the antitumor CD8(+) T cell-mediated response. This suppression was associated with the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells(More)
Our understanding of the biology of the complement system has undergone a drastic metamorphosis since its original discovery. This system, which was traditionally primarily described as a "complement" to humoral immunity, is now perceived as a central constituent of innate immunity, defending the host against pathogens, coordinating various events during(More)
Components of innate immunity have recently been implicated in the regulation of developmental processes. Most strikingly, complement factors appear to be involved in limb regeneration in certain urodele species. Prompted by these observations and anticipating a conserved role of complement in mammalian regeneration, we have now investigated the involvement(More)
Decay-accelerating factor ([DAF] CD55) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane inhibitor of complement with broad clinical relevance. Here, we establish an additional and unexpected role for DAF in the suppression of adaptive immune responses in vivo. In both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, deficiency of the Daf1 gene, which encodes the murine(More)
Complement, an important component of the innate immune system, is comprised of about 35 individual proteins. In mammals, activation of complement results in the generation of activated protein fragments that play a role in microbial killing, phagocytosis, inflammatory reactions, immune complex clearance, and antibody production. Fish appear to possess(More)