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During development, the formation of mature neural circuits requires the selective elimination of inappropriate synaptic connections. Here we show that C1q, the initiating protein in the classical complement cascade, is expressed by postnatal neurons in response to immature astrocytes and is localized to synapses throughout the postnatal CNS and retina.(More)
Complement has been implicated in liver repair after toxic injury. Here, we demonstrate that complement components are essential for liver regeneration, and mediate their effect by interacting with key signaling networks that promote hepatocyte proliferation. C3- or C5-deficient mice exhibited high mortality, parenchymal damage, and impaired liver(More)
Abnormal accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with prominent brain inflammation. Whereas earlier studies concluded that this inflammation is detrimental, more recent animal data suggest that at least some inflammatory processes may be beneficial and promote Abeta clearance. Consistent with these observations,(More)
Recent advances in the treatment of the peptide design problem have led to the ability to select novel sequences given the structure of a peptide backbone. Despite these breakthroughs, issues related to the stability and functionality of these designed peptides remain sources of frustration. In this work, a novel method that addresses these issues for the(More)
The involvement of complement-activation products in promoting tumor growth has not yet been recognized. Here we show that the generation of complement C5a in a tumor microenvironment enhanced tumor growth by suppressing the antitumor CD8(+) T cell-mediated response. This suppression was associated with the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells(More)
A homologue of complement component C3 (SpC3) has been cloned and sequenced from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The preprocessed, deduced protein size is estimated to be 186 kDa with a short leader and two chains, alpha and beta. There are cysteines in conserved positions for interchain disulfide bonding, and there is a conserved(More)
1 Abstract The ability to analyze large molecular structures by NMR techniques requires ef-cient methods for structure calculation. Currently there are several widely available methods for tackling these problems, which, in general, rely on the optimization of penalty-type target functions in order to satisfy the conformational restraints. Typically , these(More)
T lymphocytes are key contributors to the acute phase of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, but the relevant T cell-derived mediators of tissue injury remain unknown. Using a mouse model of transient focal brain ischemia, we report that IL-21 is highly up-regulated in the injured mouse brain after cerebral ischemia. IL-21-deficient mice have smaller(More)
The role of complement components in traumatic brain injury is poorly understood. Here we show that secondary damage after acute cryoinjury is significantly reduced in C3-/- or C5-/- mice or in mice treated with C5a receptor antagonist peptides. Injury sizes and neutrophil extravasation were compared. While neutrophil density increased following traumatic(More)
Factor H (FH) is an abundant regulator of complement activation and protects host cells from self-attack by complement. Here we provide insights into the regulatory activity of FH by solving the crystal structure of the first four domains of FH in complex with its target C3b. FH interacts with multiple domains of C3b, covering a large, extended surface(More)