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Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) infect epithelial cells, become localized in neurons, and can reactivate in response to a variety of stimuli, including ultraviolet light and hyperthermia. The sequence of gene activation during viral replication is known, but the molecular linkage between exogenous stimuli and HSV reactivation has not been determined. It was(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine produced in many tissues, including the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. IL-6 acts by binding to its specific receptor, stimulating a cascade of signal proteins that induce the transcription factors NF-IL6 and STAT3. These IL-6-induced transcription factors change cellular gene transcription. Neutralization of(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which often follows a relapsing-remitting (RR) course with discrete attacks. MS attacks have been associated with upper respiratory infections (URIs), but the specific viruses responsible have not been identified. We studied a cohort of 16 RRMS patients experiencing(More)
We studied susceptibility to herpes labialis by exposing 20 volunteers to experimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on three occasions at 3- to 4-month intervals. The number of patients who developed lesions after each session was 9/20 (45%), 9/20 (45%) and 14/20 (70%). Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was isolated from 21/29 (72%) of lesions sampled. Three(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), a category B pathogen endemic in parts of Africa, Asia and Europe, emerged in North America in 1999, and spread rapidly across the continental U.S. Outcomes of infection with WNV range from asymptomatic to severe neuroinvasive disease manifested as encephalitis, paralysis, and/or death. Neuroinvasive WNV disease occurs in less than(More)
Sinonasal infection with fungi of the order Mucorales--termed mucormycosis or zygomycosis--is sometimes seen in immunosuppressed patients, including those with diabetic ketoacidosis and malignancy. We describe a case of invasive sinonasal infection with Scopulariopsis candida (not among the Mucorales organisms) in a 12-year-old girl who was being treated(More)
We report a case of a life-threatening, recurrent, and azole-resistant pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in a patient receiving long-term fluconazole therapy for a history of coccidioidal meningitis. Since this diagnosis, the patient has received weekly amphotericin B for more than four years and remains in remission with a stable serum Coccidioides complement(More)
BACKGROUND Most of the United States population is infected with either herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2, or both. Reactivations of HSV-1 infection cause herpes simplex labialis (HSL; cold sores or fever blisters), which is the most common recurring viral infection in humans. METHODS To investigate the possibility of a(More)
BACKGROUND Pritelivir, an inhibitor of the viral helicase-primase complex, exhibits antiviral activity in vitro and in animal models of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. We tested the efficacy and safety of pritelivir in otherwise healthy persons with genital HSV-2 infection. METHODS We randomly assigned 156 HSV-2-positive persons with a history of(More)