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The MSA program, written and distributed in 1989, is one of the few existing programs that attempts to find optimal alignments of multiple protein or DNA sequences. The MSA program implements a branch-and-bound technique together with a variant of Dijkstra's shortest paths algorithm to prune the basic dynamic programming graph. We have made substantial(More)
Multiple sequence alignment can be a useful technique for studying molecular evolution and analyzing sequence-structure relationships. Until recently, it has been impractical to apply dynamic programming, the most widely accepted method for producing pairwise alignments, to comparisons of more than three sequences. We describe the design and application of(More)
Motivated by the problem in computational biology of reconstructing the series of chromosome inversions by which one organism evolved from another, we consider the problem of computing the shortest series of reversals that transform one permutation to another. The permutations describe the order of genes on corresponding chromosomes, and areversal takes an(More)
Software watermarking is a tool used to combat software piracy by embedding identifying information into a program. Most existing proposals for software watermarking have the shortcoming that the mark can be destroyed via fairly straightforward semantics-preserving code transformations. This paper introduces path-based watermarking, a new approach to(More)
We study the problem of comparing two circular chromosomes that have evolved by chromosome inversion, assuming that the order of corresponding genes is known, as well as their orientation. Determining the minimum number of inversions is equivalent to finding the minimum of reversals to sort a signed circular permutation, where a reversal takes an arbitrary(More)
The trend toward very large DNA sequencing projects, such as those being undertaken as part of the Human Genome Program, necessitates the development of efficient and precise algorithms for assembling a long DNA sequence from the fragments obtained by shotgun sequencing or other methods. The sequence reconstruction problem that we take as our formulation of(More)
For as long as biologists have been computing alignments of sequences, the question of what values to use for scoring substitutions and gaps has persisted. While some choices for substitution scores are now common, largely due to convention, there is no standard for choosing gap penalties. An objective way to resolve this question is to learn the(More)
Motivated by the problem in computational biology of reconstructing the series of chromosome inversions by which one organism evolved from another, we consider the proble m of computing the shortest series of reversals that transform one permutation to another, The permutations describe the order of genes on corresponding chromosomes, and a reversal takes(More)