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The authors would like to express their appreciation to two anonymous referees for comments that 2 significantly improved this paper. ABSTRACT The ability of neural networks to closely approximate unknown functions to any degree of desired accuracy has generated considerable demand for Neural Network research in Business. The attractiveness of neural(More)
Heat shock proteins (Hsp) were first characterized as intracellular proteins, which function to limit protein aggregation, facilitate protein refolding, and chaperone proteins. During times of cellular stress, intracellular Hsp levels increase to provide cellular protection. Recently, it has been recognized that Hsp, particularly Hsp72, are also found(More)
Exposure to stressors often alters the subsequent responsiveness of many systems. The present study tested whether prior exposure to inescapable tailshock (IS) alters the interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, or IL-6 response to an injection of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS). Rats were exposed to IS or remained as home(More)
The escalation of Neural Network research in Business has been brought about by the ability of neural networks, as a tool, to closely approximate unknown functions to any degree of desired accuracy. Although, gradient based search techniques such as back-propagation are currently the most widely used optimization techniques for training neural networks, it(More)
Exposure to stressors often alters the subsequent responsiveness of many systems. The present study tested whether prior exposure to inescapable tailshock (IS) alters the corticosterone (CORT) or adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) response to either an injection of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) or subsequent placement on a pedestal. Rats(More)
Exposure to acute physical and/or psychological stressors induces a cascade of physiological changes collectively termed the stress response. The stress response is demonstrable at the behavioural, neural, endocrine and cellular levels. Stimulation of the stress response functions to improve an organism's chance of survival during acute stressor challenge.(More)
Exposure to an intense acute stressor immediately following immunization leads to a reduction in anti-KLH IgM, IgG, and IgG2a, but not IgG1. Stress also depletes splenic norepinephrine (NE) content. Immunization during pharmacological (alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine) or stress-induced splenic NE depletion results in antibody suppression similar to that found in(More)
The recent surge in activity of Neural Network research in Business is not surprising since the underlying functions controlling business data are generally unknown and the neural network offers a tool that can approximate the unknown function to any degree of desired accuracy. The vast majority of these studies rely on a gradient algorithm, typically a(More)
Many AIDS patients suffer from cognitive impairments including deficits in learning and memory. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 is one possible mediator of these impairments. This is because gp120 activates brain microglial cells and astrocytes, and in vivo activation of glia leads to the release of the proinflammatory(More)
Exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine production by primed microglia is thought to mediate pathology during stress, aging, and neurodegeneration. Recently, it was demonstrated that beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonism prevents priming of microglia in mice exposed to chronic stress. To determine if β-AR stimulation is sufficient to prime microglia,(More)