John D. Fernstrom

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The ingestion of large neutral amino acids (LNAA), notably tryptophan, tyrosine and the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), modifies tryptophan and tyrosine uptake into brain and their conversion to serotonin and catecholamines, respectively. The particular effect reflects the competitive nature of the transporter for LNAA at the blood–brain barrier. For(More)
Brain tryptophan (TRP) concentrations and serotonin (5HT) synthesis and release increase during running. This increase in 5HT function may promote central fatigue and contribute to suboptimal physical performance. The rise in brain TRP is reputed to result from exercise-induced elevations in serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, which(More)
  • John D. Fernstrom, Steven D. Munger, Anthony Sclafani, Ivan E. de Araujo, Ashley Roberts, Samuel Molinary
  • 2012
A remarkable amount of information has emerged in the past decade regarding sweet taste physiology. This article reviews these data, with a particular focus on the elucidation of the sweet taste receptor, its location and actions in taste transduction in the mouth, its nontaste functions in the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., in enteroendocrine cells), and(More)
Appetite suppressants lose efficacy when given chronically; the mechanisms are unknown. We gave male rats once-daily dl-fenfluramine (dl-FEN, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injections for 15 days and measured mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in hypothalamic neurons on days 1, 2 and 15. dl-FEN(More)
The mechanisms by which fenfluramine suppresses food intake and body weight have been linked to its ability to enhance transmission across serotonin synapses in brain. This drug initially lowers body weight and suppresses food intake, yet after repeated administration food intake soon returns to normal and body weight no longer decreases. Fenfluramine also(More)
Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue.(More)
Although the selective toxicity of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) is thought to depend on the drug's transport into serotonin (5HT) neurons via the 5HT transporter, few studies have critically examined this postulation. We therefore evaluated if 5,7-DHT-induced reductions in 5HT concentrations and synthesis rate in rat brain are blocked by pretreatment(More)
To investigate the neural encoding of glutamate (umami) taste in the primate, recordings were made from taste-responsive neurons in the cortical taste areas in macaques. Most of the neurons were in the orbitofrontal cortex (secondary) taste area. First, it was shown that there is a representation of the taste of glutamate that is separate from the(More)