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BACKGROUND Women with bulimia nervosa (BN) have disturbances of mood and behavior and alterations of monoamine activity when they are bingeing and purging. It is not known whether these alterations are secondary to pathological eating behavior or traits that could contribute to the pathogenesis of BN. METHODS To avoid the confounding effects of(More)
OBJECTIVE Update of the Hohenheim consensus on monosodium glutamate from 1997: Summary and evaluation of recent knowledge with respect to physiology and safety of monosodium glutamate. DESIGN Experts from a range of relevant disciplines received and considered a series of questions related to aspects of the topic. SETTING University of Hohenheim,(More)
Carbohydrate ingestion raises tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis in rat brain. The addition of protein is generally believed only to block such increases. However, some recent evidence suggests dietary protein may not be limited to this action. In the present studies, we fed rats single meals containing one of 5 proteins (zein, wheat gluten, soy(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have raised the question as to whether a dysregulation of the neurotransmitter serotonin may contribute to the alterations in mood seen in anorexia nervosa (AN). People with AN tend to be anxious, obsessional, perfectionistic, and harm avoidant. These traits are premorbid and persist after recovery. It has been suggested that(More)
When plasma tryptophan is elevated by the injection of tryptophan or insulin, or by the consumption of carbohydrates, brain tryptophan and serotonin also rise; however, when even larger elevations of plasma tryptophan are produced by the ingestion of protein-containing diets, brain tryptophan and serotonin do not change. The main determinant of brain(More)
The ingestion of large neutral amino acids (LNAA), notably tryptophan, tyrosine and the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), modifies tryptophan and tyrosine uptake into brain and their conversion to serotonin and catecholamines, respectively. The particular effect reflects the competitive nature of the transporter for LNAA at the blood–brain barrier. For(More)
Aromatic amino acids in the brain function as precursors for the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (substrate tryptophan) and the catecholamines [dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine; substrate tyrosine (Tyr)]. Unlike almost all other neurotransmitter biosynthetic pathways, the rates of synthesis of serotonin and catecholamines in the brain are(More)
BACKGROUND Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is low in obese adults. OBJECTIVE To examine serum 25(OH)D in obese (BMI >95th percentile for age) vs. non-obese (BMI = 5th-75th percentile for age) 6-10-year-old African American children and compare their differences in therapeutic response to vitamin D supplementation. METHODS AND PROCEDURES In an open(More)