John D. Cowden

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Given the minimal developmental neurotoxicity data available for the large number of new and existing chemicals, there is a critical need for alternative methods to identify and prioritize chemicals for further testing. We outline a developmental neurotoxicity screening approach using zebrafish embryos. Embryos were exposed to nominal concentrations of(More)
Hazard information essential to guide developmental neurotoxicity risk assessments is limited for many chemicals. As developmental neurotoxicity testing using rodents is laborious and expensive, alternative species such as zebrafish are being adapted for rapid toxicity screening. Assessing the developmental neurotoxicity potential of chemicals in a rapid(More)
Chemical exposure during embryonic development may cause persistent effects, yet developmental toxicity data exist for very few chemicals. Current testing procedures are time consuming and costly, underlining the need for rapid and low cost screening strategies. While in vitro methods are useful for screening, these methods do not replicate all the(More)
BACKGROUND Oral exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with adverse health effects. Epidemiological studies suggest differences in susceptibility to these health effects, possibly due to genotypic variation. Genetic polymorphisms in iAs metabolism could lead to increased susceptibility by altering urinary iAs metabolite concentrations. (More)
Individuals exposed to inhaled endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) can develop airway symptomatology and exacerbations of asthma. Moreover, among those occupationally exposed to organic dusts, the progression of airflow obstruction is related to the endotoxin concentration in the bioaerosol. Not everyone exposed to high concentrations of LPS develops these(More)
OBJECTIVE Socioeconomic status (SES) is inversely related to pediatric mortality in the community. However, it is unknown if this association exists for in-hospital pediatric mortality. Our objective was to determine the association of SES with in-hospital pediatric mortality among children's hospitals and to compare observed mortality with expected(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to inorganic and organic arsenic compounds is a major public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer and noncancer effects in nearly every organ in the body, and evidence is mounting for health effects at lower levels of arsenic exposure than previously thought.(More)
Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in consumer products and commercial applications has helped drive a rise in research related to the environmental health and safety (EHS) of these materials. Within the cacophony of information on ENM EHS to date are data indicating that these materials may be neurotoxic in adult animals. Evidence of elevated(More)
Ethanol (EtOH) is a well-known developmental toxicant that produces a range of abnormal phenotypes in mammalian systems including craniofacial abnormalities, cognitive deficits and growth retardation. While the toxic potential of developmental EtOH exposure is well characterized clinically, the effect of timing on the extent of toxicity remains unknown.(More)