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Guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1) and guanylate cyclase-inhibitory protein (GCIP) are calmodulin-related Ca2+-binding proteins expressed in vertebrate photoreceptor cells. GCAP1 activates photoreceptor guanylate cyclase 1 (GC1) at low free [Ca2+] (<50 nM, in the light), but inhibits it at physiological high [Ca2+] (1 microM, in the dark). GCIP,(More)
Retinal guanylate cyclases 1 and 2 (GC1 and GC2) are responsible for synthesis of cyclic GMP in rods and cones, but their individual contributions to phototransduction are unknown. We report here that the deletion of both GC1 and GC2 rendered rod and cone photoreceptors nonfunctional and unstable. In the rod outer segments of GC double knock-out mice,(More)
PURPOSE To identify gene arrangement, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern of mouse guanylate cyclase activating proteins GCAP1 and GCAP2, retina-specific Ca2+-binding proteins, and photoreceptor guanylate cyclase activators. METHODS The GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes were cloned from genomic libraries and sequenced. The chromosomal localization of the(More)
PURPOSE This study had three objectives: (1) to characterize the structures of the chicken GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes; (2) to determine if GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 genes are expressed in chicken pineal gland; (3) if GC1 is expressed in chicken pineal, to determine if the GC1 null mutation carried by the retinal degeneration (rd) chicken is associated with(More)
An isoform of RGS9 was recently identified as the GTPase activating protein in bovine and mouse rod and cone photoreceptors. To explore the potential role of the RGS9 gene in human retinal disease, we determined its exon/intron arrangement, and investigated its expression in human retina. The results show that the gene, located on 17q24, consists of 19(More)
Poverty is among the root causes of death and poor health worldwide. Project HOPE's Village Health Bank (VHB) program is a public health intervention that combines integrated microcredit lending and health education. Groups of 18 to 25 women receive small loans, and biweekly, one-hour health education sessions. Since 1993, about 50,000 women in 949 VHBs(More)
GCAP1 and GCAP2 are related Ca(2+)-binding proteins that activate photoreceptor guanylate cyclase(s). We showed previously that the human GCAP1 gene, consisting of four exons, is located at 6p21.1 (locus designation GUCA). To identify the chromosomal location of the GCAP2 gene, we first cloned its cDNA and determined its intron-exon distribution by PCR(More)
The retinoid cycle is a recycling system that replenishes the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of rhodopsin and cone pigments. Photoreceptor-specific retinol dehydrogenase (prRDH) catalyzes reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol and is thought to be a key enzyme in the retinoid cycle. We disrupted mouse prRDH (human gene symbol RDH8) gene expression(More)
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