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We have recently reported the use of sequential simplex optimization methods to design a medium (SOM) that overcomes the block to development beyond two cells which occurs in vitro in embryos from an outbred strain of mouse. We have examined this medium and several others for their ability to foster development of CF1 female x B6D2F1 male mouse embryos(More)
Culture media were developed for pronuclear-stage mouse embryos using simplex optimization, which has the benefit of being able to optimize several components simultaneously. Initially, several different media were generated. All media contained the same components, yet each medium was characterized by having a different component at a high concentration.(More)
THE D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are critical governors of the cell-cycle clock apparatus during the G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle. These three D-type cyclins are expressed in overlapping, apparently redundant fashion in the proliferating tissues. To investigate why mammalian cells need three distinct D-type cyclins, we have generated mice bearing(More)
Development of outbred CF1 mouse zygotes in vitro was studied in a chemically defined, protein-free medium both with and without amino acids. The addition of amino acids to protein-free potassium simplex optimized medium (KSOM) had little effect on the proportion of embryos that developed at least to the zona-enclosed blastocyst stage. In contrast, amino(More)
The ideal cryopreservation protocol would combine the benefits of slow freezing with the benefits of vitrification. This report describes a method for the ultra-rapid vitrification of oocytes using slush nitrogen in quartz capillaries. The approach minimizes the thermal mass of the vitrification vessel by using open microcapillaries made of highly(More)
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor and a target of viral oncoproteins. To determine the biological role of YY1 in mammalian development, we generated mice deficient for YY1 by gene targeting. Homozygosity for the mutated YY1 allele results in embryonic lethality in the mouse. YY1 mutants undergo implantation and induce uterine(More)