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D uring mammalian tooth formation, two proteinases are secreted by ameloblasts: enamelysin (MMP-20) and kallikrein-4 (KLK4). Enamelysin is the early protease. It is expressed by ameloblasts throughout the secretory stage and part of the maturation stage. 1–3 KLK4 is the late protease; its expression by ameloblasts begins in the transition stage and(More)
Two proteases are secreted into the enamel matrix of developing teeth. The early protease is enamelysin (MMP-20). The late protease is kallikrein 4 (KLK4). Mutations in MMP20 and KLK4 both cause autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta, a condition featuring soft, porous enamel containing residual protein. MMP-20 is secreted along with enamel proteins by(More)
Enamel formation depends on a triad of tissue-specific matrix proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) to help initiate and stabilize progressively elongating, thin mineral ribbons of hydroxyapatite formed during an appositional growth phase. Subsequently, these proteins are eradicated to facilitate lateral expansion of the hydroxyapatite(More)
Dentin sialophosphoprotein [designated DSPP and cleaved into dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP)], enamelysin and ameloblastin are each expressed in unique fashions during tooth development. It is possible that these components participate in cell differentiation and the conversion of unmineralized matrix into mineralized structures.(More)
Enamelysin is a tooth-specific matrix metalloproteinase that is expressed during the early through middle stages of enamel development. The enamel matrix proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin are also expressed during this same approximate developmental time period, suggesting that enamelysin may play a role in their hydrolysis. In support of this(More)
The maturation of dental enamel succeeds the degradation of organic matrix. Inhibition studies have shown that this degradation is accomplished by a serine-type proteinase. To isolate and characterize cDNA clones encoding this proteinase, we used two degenerate primer approaches to amplify part of the coding region using polymerase chain-reaction (PCR).(More)
Kallikrein-4 (KLK4) is a serine proteinase believed to be important in the normal development of dental enamel. We isolated native KLK4 from developing pig enamel and expressed four recombinant forms. Pig KLK4 was expressed in bacteria with and without the propeptide, and in two eukaryotic systems. Recombinant pig KLK4 was secreted as a zymogen by '293'(More)
A cDNA encoding a new human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) has been cloned from RNA prepared from odontoblastic cells. The open reading frame of the cloned cDNA codes for a polypeptide of 483 amino acids and is extensively similar to the sequence of recently described porcine enamelysin, suggesting that the isolated cDNA codes for the human homologue of(More)
BACKGROUND The enamel layerof kallikrein 4 (Klk4)-null mice has a normal thickness and a decussating pattern of enamel rods, but it contains residual enamel proteins, is less highly mineralized, and fractures in its deepest part just above the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ). The plane of fracture is puzzling because the deepest enamel is deposited earliest(More)
Non-syndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a collection of isolated inherited enamel malformations that follow X-linked, autosomal-dominant, or autosomal-recessive patterns of inheritance. The AI phenotype is also found in syndromes. We hypothesized that whole-exome sequencing of AI probands showing simplex or recessive patterns of inheritance would(More)