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D uring mammalian tooth formation, two proteinases are secreted by ameloblasts: enamelysin (MMP-20) and kallikrein-4 (KLK4). Enamelysin is the early protease. It is expressed by ameloblasts throughout the secretory stage and part of the maturation stage. 1–3 KLK4 is the late protease; its expression by ameloblasts begins in the transition stage and(More)
During enamel development, matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20, enamelysin) is expressed early during the secretory stage as the enamel thickens, and kallikrein-4 (KLK-4, EMSP1) is expressed later during the maturation stage as the enamel hardens. Thus, we investigated whether the physical properties of the secretory-/maturation-stage MMP-20 null enamel(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to excessive amounts of fluoride (F(-)) causes dental fluorosis in susceptible individuals; however, the mechanism of F(-)-induced toxicity is unclear. Previously, we have shown that high-dose F(-) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) in ameloblasts that are responsible for dental enamel formation. The UPR is a signaling pathway(More)
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited defects in dental enamel formation. The malformed enamel can be unusually thin, soft, rough and stained. The strict definition of AI includes only those cases where enamel defects occur in the absence of other symptoms. Currently, there are seven candidate genes for AI: amelogenin, enamelin,(More)
This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins(More)
Human matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20, enamelysin) fragments the enamel-specific protein amelogenin and has been shown to be synthesized exclusively by odontoblasts and ameloblasts and in certain odontogenic tumors. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the expression of MMP-20 mRNA and protein in two carcinoma cell lines originating from the tongue.(More)
Dental enamel development occurs in stages. The ameloblast cell layer is adjacent to, and is responsible for, enamel formation. When rodent pre-ameloblasts become tall columnar secretory-stage ameloblasts, they secrete enamel matrix proteins, and the ameloblasts start moving in rows that slide by one another. This movement is necessary to form the(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to play important roles during enamel and dentin biomineralization. Previously, membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) was localized to the plasma membranes of ameloblasts and odontoblasts of the developing tooth. The best-characterized function of MT1-MMP is to initiate the activation of gelatinase A(More)