Learn More
During enamel development, matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20, enamelysin) is expressed early during the secretory stage as the enamel thickens, and kallikrein-4 (KLK-4, EMSP1) is expressed later during the maturation stage as the enamel hardens. Thus, we investigated whether the physical properties of the secretory-/maturation-stage MMP-20 null enamel(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to excessive amounts of fluoride (F(-)) causes dental fluorosis in susceptible individuals; however, the mechanism of F(-)-induced toxicity is unclear. Previously, we have shown that high-dose F(-) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) in ameloblasts that are responsible for dental enamel formation. The UPR is a signaling pathway(More)
This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins(More)
Human matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20, enamelysin) fragments the enamel-specific protein amelogenin and has been shown to be synthesized exclusively by odontoblasts and ameloblasts and in certain odontogenic tumors. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the expression of MMP-20 mRNA and protein in two carcinoma cell lines originating from the tongue.(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to play important roles during enamel and dentin biomineralization. Previously, membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) was localized to the plasma membranes of ameloblasts and odontoblasts of the developing tooth. The best-characterized function of MT1-MMP is to initiate the activation of gelatinase A(More)
Human enamel development of the permanent teeth takes place during childhood and stresses encountered during this period can have lasting effects on the appearance and structural integrity of the enamel. One of the most common examples of this is the development of dental fluorosis after childhood exposure to excess fluoride, an elemental agent used to(More)
Dental enamel development occurs in stages. The ameloblast cell layer is adjacent to, and is responsible for, enamel formation. When rodent pre-ameloblasts become tall columnar secretory-stage ameloblasts, they secrete enamel matrix proteins, and the ameloblasts start moving in rows that slide by one another. This movement is necessary to form the(More)
BACKGROUND It is not known why the ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation are uniquely sensitive to fluoride (F(-)). Herein, we present a novel theory with supporting data to show that the low pH environment of maturating stage ameloblasts enhances their sensitivity to a given dose of F(-). Enamel formation is initiated in a neutral pH(More)