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Dental caries is a bacterially based disease that progresses when acid produced by bacterial action on dietary fermentable carbohydrates diffuses into the tooth and dissolves the mineral, that is, demineralization. Pathological factors including acidogenic bacteria (mutans streptococci and lactobacilli), salivary dysfunction, and dietary carbohydrates are(More)
Dental erosion is caused by repeated short episodes of exposure to acids. Dental minerals are calcium-deficient, carbonated hydroxyapatites containing impurity ions such as Na(+), Mg(2+) and Cl(-). The rate of dissolution, which is crucial to the progression of erosion, is influenced by solubility and also by other factors. After outlining principles of(More)
Demineralization around orthodontic appliances is a problem. Suboptimal oral hygiene, long intervals between appointments, and potentially poor patient cooperation with using fluoride dentifrices and mouth rinses necessitate a compliance-free means of preventing tooth decay. The hypothesis of this study was that fluoride released by glass ionomer cement(More)
INTRODUCTION Enamel demineralization is an undesirable side effect of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of applying a light-cured filled sealant onto the buccal tooth surfaces to prevent demineralization. METHODS Fifty extracted human third molars were allocated to 1 of 5 groups:(More)
Several studies during the last 30 years have demonstrated the potential of laser pre-treatment of enamel or tooth roots to inhibit subsequent acid-induced dissolution or artificial caries-like challenge in the laboratory. The overall objective of ongoing studies in our laboratories is to determine, systematically, the optimum sets of parameters for carbon(More)
BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW Dental caries is a bacterially based disease. When it progresses, acid produced by bacterial action on dietary fermentable carbohydrates diffuses into the tooth and dissolves the carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral--a process called demineralization. Pathological factors including acidogenic bacteria (mutans streptococci and(More)
To determine the efficacy of fluoride varnish (5% NaF, Duraphat, Colgate) added to caregiver counseling to prevent early childhood caries, we conducted a two-year randomized, dental-examiner-masked clinical trial. Initially, 376 caries-free children, from low-income Chinese or Hispanic San Francisco families, were enrolled (mean age +/- standard deviation,(More)
The presence of clinically detectable areas of decalcification (observable as whitened areas) following the removal of orthodontic appliances is well recognized. The aim of the present study was to determine quantitatively the amount of demineralization and the ability of commercially available products to inhibit or reverse orthodontically related(More)
For many years after the discovery of its caries preventive effect, fluoride was thought to be primarily active by lowering the solubility of the apatitic mineral phase of the dental hard tissues. Recent findings have shed new light on the mechanisms by which fluoride inhibits or delays dental caries. Fluoride present in the oral fluids alters the rate of(More)