John Cornell Drummond

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BACKGROUND The mechanisms by which isoflurane injured the developing brain are not clear. Recent work has demonstrated that it is mediated in part by activation of p75 neurotrophin receptor. This receptor activates RhoA, a small guanosine triphosphatase that can depolymerize actin. It is therefore conceivable that inhibition of RhoA or prevention of(More)
The effects of propofol, etomidate, midazolam, and fentanyl on motor evoked responses to transcranial stimulation (tc-MERs) were studied in five healthy human volunteers. Each subject, in four separate sessions, received intravenous bolus doses of propofol 2 mg.kg-1, etomidate 0.3 mg.kg-1, midazolam 0.05 mg.kg-1, and fentanyl 3 micrograms.kg-1. Electrical(More)
BACKGROUND Propofol exposure to neurons during synaptogenesis results in apoptosis, leading to cognitive dysfunction in adulthood. Previous work from our laboratory showed that isoflurane neurotoxicity occurs through p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and subsequent cytoskeleton depolymerization. Given that isoflurane and propofol both suppress neuronal(More)
BACKGROUND Dexmedetomidine reduces cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans and animals. In animal investigations, cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) was unchanged. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that dexmedetomidine would cause a decrease in the CBF/CMR ratio with even further reduction by superimposed hyperventilation. This reduction might be deleterious in(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to anesthetics during synaptogenesis results in apoptosis and subsequent cognitive dysfunction in adulthood. Probrain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) is involved in synaptogenesis and can induce neuronal apoptosis via p75 neurotrophic receptors (p75). proBDNF is cleaved into mature BDNF (mBDNF) by plasmin, a protease converted from(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) activation and downstream signaling are important for neuronal function. Activation of prosurvival Src family kinases and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is initiated by NMDAR activation, but the cellular organization of these kinases in relation to NMDARs is not entirely clear. We hypothesized(More)
We studied the influence of phenylephrine-induced hypertension on the area of ischemia during brief middle cerebral artery occlusion. Rats were anesthetized with 1.2 minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) isoflurane, and the middle cerebral artery was occluded via a subtemporal craniectomy. Immediately thereafter, in one group (n = 9) arterial blood pressure(More)
Albino rabbits with a cryogenic lesion to the left parieto-occipital cortex had cerebral blood flow studies (CBF) with the hydrogen clearance technique 24 hours after the insult. Similar subgroups were treated with DMSO (1 g/kg) bolus, DMSO (2 g/kg) infusion, indomethacin (20 mg/kg) bolus, and indomethacin followed by DMSO. Following DMSO bolus(More)