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BACKGROUND Exposure to anesthetics during synaptogenesis results in apoptosis and subsequent cognitive dysfunction in adulthood. Probrain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) is involved in synaptogenesis and can induce neuronal apoptosis via p75 neurotrophic receptors (p75). proBDNF is cleaved into mature BDNF (mBDNF) by plasmin, a protease converted from(More)
We studied the feasibility of recording motor evoked responses to transcranial electrical stimulation (tce-MERs) during partial neuromuscular blockade (NMB). In 11 patients, compound muscle action potentials were recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle in response to transcranial electrical stimulation during various levels of vecuronium-induced NMB. The(More)
An investigation was performed to compare the cerebral protective properties of etomidate, isoflurane, and thiopental. In separate groups of spontaneously hypertensive rats, etomidate, isoflurane, or thiopental was administered to achieve and maintain burst-suppression of the electroencephalogram (3-5 bursts/min) for the duration of the experiment. A fourth(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) activation and downstream signaling are important for neuronal function. Activation of prosurvival Src family kinases and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is initiated by NMDAR activation, but the cellular organization of these kinases in relation to NMDARs is not entirely clear. We hypothesized(More)
The present study was undertaken to examine the cerebral protective properties attributed to isoflurane and at the same time to compare its protective effects with those of mild hypothermia (temperature reduction by 3 degrees C). Twenty-one fasted Wistar-Kyoto rats were assigned to one of three groups (n = 7); 1.3 MAC (end-tidal) isoflurane-normothermia(More)
Electroencephalogram (EEG) burst-suppression can be produced with several anesthetic agents. Discussions of burst-suppression suggest that it has been viewed by many as a relatively uniform physiologic state independent of the agent used to produce it. This view may be an oversimplification. In this study, relatively deep EEG burst-suppression (suppression(More)
Ischemic tolerance is a phenomenon whereby a sublethal ischemic insult [ischemic preconditioning (IPC)] provides robust protection against subsequent lethal ischemia. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and subsequent new gene transcription are required for tolerance. We utilized the NMDA antagonist, MK801, prior to the IPC stimulus to(More)
The investigations that have thus far evaluated the cerebral protective properties of isoflurane have provided conflicting results. Protection would be most likely to occur in the circumstances of incomplete cerebral ischaemia in which there is a penumbral zone of marginal perfusion. The present investigation sought to evaluate further the protective(More)
The effects of propofol, etomidate, midazolam, and fentanyl on motor evoked responses to transcranial stimulation (tc-MERs) were studied in five healthy human volunteers. Each subject, in four separate sessions, received intravenous bolus doses of propofol 2 mg.kg-1, etomidate 0.3 mg.kg-1, midazolam 0.05 mg.kg-1, and fentanyl 3 micrograms.kg-1. Electrical(More)