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The differentially spliced transcription factors encoded by the fruitless (fru) gene are key determinants of sexual behavior in Drosophila. They are expressed in a minority of neurons with limited dimorphisms and regulate neural processes that remain largely unknown. Here, we use light-activated ion channels to stimulate fru-expressing neurons in the(More)
P2X(2) receptor currents are potentiated by acidic pH and zinc. To identify residues necessary for proton and zinc modulation, alanines were singly substituted for each of the nine histidines in the extracellular domain of the rat P2X(2) receptor. Wild-type and mutant receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analysed with two-electrode voltage clamp.(More)
P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels that are widely expressed in the brain. The extracellular domains of all seven P2X receptors contain 10 conserved cysteines, which could form disulfide bonds or binding sites for transition metals that modulate P2X receptors. To test whether these cysteines are critical for receptor function, we studied wild-type(More)
In this paper we present a hardware-assisted rendering technique coupled with a compression scheme for the interactive visual exploration of time-varying scalar volume data. A palette-based decoding technique and an adaptive bit allocation scheme are developed to fully utilize the texturing capability of a commodity 3-D graphics card. Using a single PC(More)
Light-stimulated uptake of CO(2) and differential filtration through Nucleopore filters were used to estimate the significance of phytoplankton excretion as a source of bacterial carbon in water samples collected at different seasons of the year in Lake Mendota, Wis. On an annual basis, about 14% of the estimated bacterial production was accounted for by(More)
We present a scalable volume rendering technique that exploits lossy compression and low-cost commodity hardware to permit highly interactive exploration of time-varying scalar volume data. A palette-based decoding technique and an adaptive bit allocation scheme are developed to fully utilize the texturing capability of a commodity 3-D graphics card. Using(More)
The currents of P2X(2) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes or HEK293 cells show significant cell-to-cell variation in many properties including the rate of desensitization and the magnitude of potentiation by zinc or acidic pH. In this study, we examined whether differences in expression levels underlie this variability. We injected Xenopus oocytes with(More)
The ever increasing processing capabilities of the supercomputers available to computational scientists today, combined with the need for higher and higher resolution computational grids, has resulted in deluges of simulation data. Yet the computational resources and tools required to make sense of these vast numerical outputs through subsequent analysis(More)
We present a systematic approach for direct volume rendering terascale-sized data that are time-varying, and possibly non-uniformly sampled, using only a single commodity graphics PC. Our method employs a data reduction scheme that combines lossless, wavelet-based progressive data access with a user-directed, hardware-accelerated data packing technique.(More)