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P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels that are widely expressed in the brain. The extracellular domains of all seven P2X receptors contain 10 conserved cysteines, which could form disulfide bonds or binding sites for transition metals that modulate P2X receptors. To test whether these cysteines are critical for receptor function, we studied wild-type(More)
The differentially spliced transcription factors encoded by the fruitless (fru) gene are key determinants of sexual behavior in Drosophila. They are expressed in a minority of neurons with limited dimorphisms and regulate neural processes that remain largely unknown. Here, we use light-activated ion channels to stimulate fru-expressing neurons in the(More)
P2X(2) receptor currents are potentiated by acidic pH and zinc. To identify residues necessary for proton and zinc modulation, alanines were singly substituted for each of the nine histidines in the extracellular domain of the rat P2X(2) receptor. Wild-type and mutant receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analysed with two-electrode voltage clamp.(More)
The currents of P2X(2) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes or HEK293 cells show significant cell-to-cell variation in many properties including the rate of desensitization and the magnitude of potentiation by zinc or acidic pH. In this study, we examined whether differences in expression levels underlie this variability. We injected Xenopus oocytes with(More)
Using several volume visualization packages including a new package we developed called Volsh, we investigate a 25 GB dataset from a 256 3 computation of decaying quasigeostrophic turbulence. We compare surface fitting and direct volume rendering approaches, as well as a number of techniques for producing feature-revealing spatial cues. We also study the(More)
Knowledge extraction from data volumes of ever increasing size requires ever more flexible tools to facilitate interactive query. In-teractivity enables real-time hypothesis testing and scientific discovery, but can generally not be achieved without some level of data reduction. The approach described in this paper combines multi-resolution access,(More)
In this paper we present a hardware-assisted rendering technique coupled with a compression scheme for the interactive visual exploration of time-varying scalar volume data. A palette-based decoding technique and an adaptive bit allocation scheme are developed to fully utilize the texturing capability of a commodity 3-D graphics card. Using a single PC(More)
— We present a scalable volume rendering technique that exploits lossy compression and low-cost commodity hardware to permit highly interactive exploration of time-varying scalar volume data. A palette-based decoding technique and an adaptive bit allocation scheme are developed to fully utilize the texturing capability of a commodity 3-D graphics card.(More)