John Clark Matthews

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To assess the role that action on sodium channels may play in the physiological effects of cocaine and to obtain information on the structure-activity relationships of this action, cocaine, norcocaine, N-allynorcocaine, (+)-pseudococaine, (-)-pseudococaine, (+/-)-allococaine, (+/-)-allopseudococaine, ecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, O-benzoylecgonine and(More)
Whether thresholds exist for endocrine active substances and for endocrine disrupting effects of exogenous chemicals has been posed as a question for regulatory policy by the European Union. This question arises from a concern that the endocrine system is too complex to allow estimations of safe levels of exposure to any chemical with potential endocrine(More)
Therapeutic ultrasound is used to enhance the repair of soft tissue, muscle, etc., and because many of the cellular reactions involved in these processes are dependent on the intracellular availability of free calcium ions, it becomes important to study the effects of ultrasound in the presence and the absence of calcium ions. Using frog skin as a(More)
To assess the relative contributions that the sodium channel blocking activity of propranolol may play in a variety of its therapeutic applications, its effects were examined in vitro with a sodium channel specific 22Na+ uptake system, using rat brain membranes. Propranolol inhibited 22Na+ uptake in the rat brain membrane preparation by acting as a(More)
Increased extracellular glutamate has been associated with a wide range of effects including production of neurotoxicity. Glutamine has previously been shown to cause increased release of glutamate from a variety of preparations. Extracellular central nervous system (CNS) glutamine levels are known to increase with neurotoxin exposures, hepatic failure,(More)
Repin, a major constituent in extracts of the plant Centaurea repens is thought to be the active principal responsible for the development of equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia (ENE), a fatal Parkinson-like neurodegenerative disorder in horses. Although the exact mechanism by which ingestion of this weed causes ENE is uncertain, a limited body of(More)
The National Institute on Aging supports a program of investigation of "biomarkers" of aging (biological parameters that change in magnitude with age), some of which may be among the, as yet unknown, causes of Alzheimer's disease. Exposure to neurotoxicants can also produce symptoms similar to Alzheimer's disease and has been proposed as a causative factor.(More)
Prolonged ingestion of Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and Russian Knapweed (Centaurea repens) by horses has been shown to result in a fatal neurodegenerative disorder called equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia (ENE). Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Centaurea species using the PC12 cell line have led to the identification of one(More)
The sodium channel was studied in osmotically-sensitive membrane preparations from rat brain and in innervated and chronically denervated rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. These experiments were undertaken in order to define a set of parameters for sodium channel function at the subcellular level to be used as a measure of retention of(More)