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Although attitudinal objectives in medical education about alcohol and drug misuse are important, adequate instruments for measuring the achievement of such objectives have been lacking. The development of a standardized Substance Abuse Attitude Survey (SAAS) is described. Multiple administrations and factor analyses selected and refined the item pool of(More)
1994 We investigate constraint relaxation within a general constraint model. We claim that a key to relaxation is recognition that a constraint can be modified in a variety of ways and that each modification potentially carries a different impact for both the quality of the solution and the problem solving process. Our primary motivation is the application(More)
From 1978 through 1982, pretests and posttests of second-year medical students' attitudes toward substance abuse and its treatment showed that positive attitude change could be achieved during a substance abuse course. When the course was scheduled in competition with demanding basic science courses, however, the students' attitudes did not become as(More)
Spirituality is an important aspect of health care that is not often addressed in modern day primary medical practice. Controversy surrounds the role of spiritual issues in medical practice. Some of this stems from confusing spirituality with religion. This paper distinguishes between spiritual and religious issues and reviews the history of these issues in(More)
A total of 110 infants born to mothers who were either in a methadone maintenance program, using heroin, or recently detoxified, were studied during the neonatal period. Of these infants, 93.6 per cent developed withdrawal symptoms. No significant differences were determined in therapeutic response among those infants treated with methadone, phenobarbital,(More)
This expert consensus statement reviews evidence on the effectiveness of drug and alcohol self-help groups and presents potential implications for clinicians, treatment program managers and policymakers. Because longitudinal studies associate self-help group involvement with reduced substance use, improved psychosocial functioning, and lessened health care(More)
The history of medical education in treating and prescribing for additive disorders is primarily one of omission. This began to change in the 1970s, leading to positive developments in medical education; however, much still remains to be done. Training in writing prescriptions should cover four areas: (1) prescribing to prevent addiction; (2) prescribing(More)