John Chalmers

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BACKGROUND In patients with type 2 diabetes, the effects of intensive glucose control on vascular outcomes remain uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes to undergo either standard glucose control or intensive glucose control, defined as the use of gliclazide (modified release) plus other drugs as required to achieve a(More)
This paper studies the hedging policies of oil and gas producers between 1992 and 1994. My evidence shows that the extent of hedging is related to financing costs. In particular, companies with greater financial leverage manage price risks more extensively. My evidence also shows that the likelihood of hedging is related to economies of scale in hedging(More)
BACKGROUND Blood pressure is an important determinant of the risks of macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes, and guidelines recommend intensive lowering of blood pressure for diabetic patients with hypertension. We assessed the effects of the routine administration of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-diuretic(More)
Improved glucose control in type 2 diabetes is known to reduce the risk of microvascular events. There is, however, continuing uncertainty about its impact on macrovascular disease. The aim of these analyses was to generate more precise estimates of the effects of more-intensive, compared with less-intensive, glucose control on the risk of major(More)
BACKGROUND Severe hypoglycemia may increase the risk of a poor outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to an intensive glucose-lowering intervention. We analyzed data from a large study of intensive glucose lowering to explore the relationship between severe hypoglycemia and adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS We examined the associations between(More)
BACKGROUND Randomized controlled trials have shown the importance of tight glucose control in type 1 diabetes (T1DM), but few recent studies have evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among adults with T1DM. We evaluated these risks in adults with T1DM compared with the non-diabetic population in a nationwide study from(More)
Michael A. Weber, MD; Ernesto L. Schiffrin, MD; William B. White, MD; Samuel Mann, MD; Lars H. Lindholm, MD; John G. Kenerson, MD; John M. Flack, MD; Barry L. Carter, Pharm D; Barry J. Materson, MD; C. Venkata S. Ram, MD; Debbie L. Cohen, MD; Jean-Claude Cadet, MD; Roger R. Jean-Charles, MD; Sandra Taler, MD; David Kountz, MD; Raymond R. Townsend, MD; John(More)
BACKGROUND There is much uncertainty about the effects of early lowering of elevated blood pressure (BP) after acute intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Our aim was to assess the safety and efficiency of this treatment, as a run-in phase to a larger trial. METHODS Patients who had acute spontaneous ICH diagnosed by CT within 6 h of onset, elevated systolic(More)
BACKGROUND High blood pressure and stroke are associated with increased risks of dementia and cognitive impairment. This study aimed to determine whether blood pressure lowering would reduce the risks of dementia and cognitive decline among individuals with cerebrovascular disease. METHODS The Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study(More)
BACKGROUND In the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) factorial trial, the combination of perindopril and indapamide reduced mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes, but intensive glucose control, targeting a glycated hemoglobin level of less than 6.5%, did not. We now report(More)