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The placenta synthesizes insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs), which are believed to regulate its growth and development in an autocrine/paracrine manner. To delineate the cellular sites of expression of IGP and IGFBP messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) in human placenta throughout pregnancy, we used in situ hybridization(More)
CONTEXT Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are essential for human parturition due to their degrading of the extracellular matrix. CRH and urocortin (Ucn) are thought to play a central role in the mechanisms controlling human pregnancy and parturition. OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING The aim of this study was to assess the effects of CRH and Ucn on MMP-9 and(More)
Two isoforms of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta HSD) are present in mammals. 11 beta HSD1 interconverts biologically active cortisol and inactive cortisone, whereas 11 beta HSD2 only converts cortisol to cortisone. Placental 11 beta HSD has been proposed to protect the fetus from high level of maternal glucocorticoids. Although bidirectional(More)
Two types of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) have been identified in different tissues. Type 1 has both oxidase and reductase activities interconverting cortisol and cortisone, whereas type 2 has only oxidase activity converting cortisol to cortisone. It has been proposed that placental 11 beta-HSD controls the passage of maternal(More)
Recent evidence suggests that ovine placental output of prostaglandin (PG) E2 rises through late gestation partly because of a direct effect of cortisol on PGH2 synthase 2 (PGHS-2) expression and activity within trophoblast tissue. Synthesis of PGE2 is also dependent, however, on PGE2 synthase (PGES), which converts PGH2 to PGE2. We hypothesized that PGES(More)
Inflammation is a process by which tissues respond to various insults. It is characterized by upregulation of chemokines, cytokines, and pattern recognition receptors that sense microbes and tissue breakdown products. During pregnancy, the balance of Th1 (cell-mediated immunity) and Th2 (humoral immunity) cytokines is characterized by an initial prevalence(More)
Using immunohistochemical techniques, we have determined the localization and distribution of CRH immunoreactivity (CRH-IR) in the human placenta, fetal membranes, decidua, and umbilical cord. Tissues were obtained at 6-8 weeks of pregnancy, at term, in association with premature birth, and from patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension or diabetes(More)