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We present simple modifications of the classic Z-scan technique for the investigations of nonlinear chiroptical effects, i.e. nonlinear circular birefringence and two-photon circular dichroism. Two methods for studying these effects: a "polarimetric Z-scan" and a "polarization modulated Zscan" are described in detail. These techniques were applied to(More)
We report the THz response of thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. At low frequencies, transport is essentially thickness independent showing the dominant contribution of the surface electrons. Despite their extended exposure to ambient conditions, these surfaces exhibit robust properties including narrow, almost thickness-independent Drude(More)
Far infrared dielectric response is used to characterize the collective mode density of states for cytochrome c as a function of oxidation state and hydration using terahertz time domain spectroscopy. A strong absorbance and refractive index increase was observed with the oxidation. A simple phenomenological fitting using a continuous distribution of(More)
We employ Faraday and Kerr effect spectroscopy in the infrared range to investigate the electronic structure of Ga_{1-x}Mn_{x}As near the Fermi energy. The band structure of this archetypical dilute-moment ferromagnetic semiconductor has been a matter of controversy, fueled partly by previous measurements of the unpolarized infrared absorption and their(More)
Infrared (20-120 cm and 900-1100 cm) Faraday rotation and circular dichroism are measured in high Tc superconductors using sensitive polarization modulation techniques. Optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7 thin films are studied at temperatures down to 15 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T. At 1000 cm the Hall conductivity σxy varies strongly with temperature in contrast(More)
A sensitive mid-infrared (MIR, 900-1100 cm−1, 112-136 meV) photoelastic polarization modulation technique is used to measure simultaneously Faraday rotation and circular dichroism in thin metal films. These two quantities determine the complex AC Hall conductivity. This novel technique is applied to study Au and Cu thin films at temperatures down to 20 K(More)
A number of researchers are attempting to develop a biosensor based on terahertz sensing. Key to the realization of any biosensor system is the access of the target molecules to the sensor. In the case of using terahertz spectroscopy, there are limitations due to high attenuation by water and sensitivity levels. In order to have a significant response at(More)
We have investigated the terahertz photoresponse of quantum wires in high magnetic fields, employing intense far-infrared (FIR) radiation from the UCSB Free-Electron Lasers. Both GaAs-based and InAs-based quantum wires, with widths ranging from 50 nm to 1 μm, were studied. At high FIR power we observed Shubnikov–de Haas type oscillations in photoresponse(More)
The remarkable electronic properties of graphene strongly depend on the thickness and geometry of graphene stacks. This wide range of electronic tunability is of fundamental interest and has many applications in newly proposed devices. Using the mid-infrared, magneto-optical Kerr effect, we detect and identify over 18 interband cyclotron resonances (CR)(More)
Investigation of magnetic materials using the first-order magneto-optical Kerr effects (MOKEs) is well established and is frequently used. On the other hand, the utilization of the second-order (or quadratic) magneto-optical (MO) effects for the material research is rather rare. This is due to the small magnitude of quadratic MO signals and the fact that(More)