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We demonstrate that the mean ratio of the number of alleles to the range in allele size, which we term M, calculated from a population sample of microsatellite loci, can be used to detect reductions in population size. Using simulations, we show that, for a general class of mutation models, the value of M decreases when a population is reduced in size. The(More)
Mutational processes of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in complex genomes are poorly understood. We examined these processes by introducing a two-phase mutation model. In this model, most mutations are single-step changes, but infrequent large jumps in repeat number also occur. We used computer simulations to determine expected values of statistics that(More)
The distributions of allele sizes at eight simple-sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite loci in chimpanzees are found and compared with the distributions previously obtained from several human populations. At several loci, the differences in average allele size between chimpanzees and humans are sufficiently small that there might be a constraint on the(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are appealing genetic markers due to several beneficial attributes, but uncertainty remains about how many of these bi-allelic markers are necessary to have sufficient power to differentiate populations, a task now generally accomplished with highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. In this study, we tested the(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains genes integral to immune response in vertebrates. MHC genes have been shown to be under selection in a number of vertebrate taxa, making them intriguing for population genetic studies. We have conducted a survey of genetic variation in an MHC class II gene for steelhead trout from 24 sites in coastal(More)
The Mound-building mouse Mus spicilegus possesses a unique behaviour amongst mice. It constructs large earthen mounds and associated nesting chambers which serve to store food for immature individuals during the winter nesting period. We have used genetic analysis of four autosomal and four X-linked microsatellite loci to determine relationships between(More)
Allelic variation in the major histocompatibility class (MHC) IIB gene of salmonids is analyzed for patterns indicative of natural selection acting at the molecular level. Sequence data for the second exon of this MHC gene were generated for 11 species in three salmonid genera: Oncorhynchus, Salmo, and Salvelinus. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide(More)
Likelihood-based parentage inference depends on the distribution of a likelihood-ratio statistic, which, in most cases of interest, cannot be exactly determined, but only approximated by Monte Carlo simulation. We provide importance-sampling algorithms for efficiently approximating very small tail probabilities in the distribution of the likelihood-ratio(More)
Rapid adaptation to novel environments may drive changes in genomic regions through natural selection. Such changes may be population-specific or, alternatively, may involve parallel evolution of the same genomic region in multiple populations, if that region contains genes or co-adapted gene complexes affecting the selected trait(s). Both quantitative and(More)