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Eukaryotic cells respond to unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress), amino acid starvation, or oxidants by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). This adaptation inhibits general protein synthesis while promoting translation and expression of the transcription factor ATF4. Atf4(-/-) cells are(More)
Mammalian Clk/Sty is the prototype for a family of dual specificity kinases (termed LAMMER kinases) that have been conserved in evolution, but whose physiological substrates are unknown. In a yeast two-hybrid screen, the Clk/Sty kinase specifically interacted with RNA binding proteins, particularly members of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) family of splicing(More)
Ideally, an oncolytic virus will replicate preferentially in malignant cells, have the ability to treat disseminated metastases, and ultimately be cleared by the patient. Here we present evidence that the attenuated vesicular stomatitis strains, AV1 and AV2, embody all of these traits. We uncover the mechanism by which these mutants are selectively(More)
The LAMMER subfamily of kinases has been conserved throughout evolution, and its members are thought to play important roles in the regulation of cellular growth and differentiation programs. STY is a murine LAMMER kinase which has been implicated in the control of PC12 cell differentiation. Multiple transcripts are derived from the Sty gene, and their(More)
The alternative splicing of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) mRNA generates two isoforms that harbor distinct potential phosphorylation sites in their cytoplasmic tails. Here we characterize the in vivo phosphorylation of MAG isoforms in NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the cDNAs encoding the two isoforms of MAG. Our results demonstrate that the longer(More)
Oncolytic viruses and active immunotherapeutics have complementary mechanisms of action (MOA) that are both self amplifying in tumors, yet the impact of dose on subject outcome is unclear. JX-594 (Pexa-Vec) is an oncolytic and immunotherapeutic vaccinia virus. To determine the optimal JX-594 dose in subjects with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we(More)
BACKGROUND Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase that inhibits mRNA translation under stress conditions. PKR also mediates inflammatory and apoptotic signaling independently of translational regulation. Congestive heart failure is associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and apoptosis,(More)
Interferons are circulating factors that bind to cell surface receptors, activating a signaling cascade, ultimately leading to both an antiviral response and an induction of growth inhibitory and/or apoptotic signals in normal and tumor cells. Attempts to exploit the ability of interferons to limit the growth of tumors in patients has met with limited(More)
A novel protein kinase, the Esk kinase, has been isolated from an embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line by using an expression cloning strategy. Sequence analysis of two independent cDNA clones (2.97 and 2.85 kb) suggested the presence of two Esk isoforms in EC cells. The esk-1 cDNA sequence predicted an 857-amino-acid protein kinase with a putative(More)
BACKGROUND JX-594 is a targeted oncolytic poxvirus designed to selectively replicate in and destroy cancer cells with cell-cycle abnormalities and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ras pathway activation. Direct oncolysis plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression also stimulates shutdown of tumour vasculature and(More)