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An inhibitor of Bcl-2 family proteins induces regression of solid tumours
Mechanistic studies reveal that ABT-737 does not directly initiate the apoptotic process, but enhances the effects of death signals, displaying synergistic cytotoxicity with chemotherapeutics and radiation.
Tumor suppressor p53 is a direct transcriptional activator of the human bax gene
Endoplasmic reticulum stress: cell life and death decisions.
- Chunyan Xu, B. Bailly‐Maitre, John Calvin Reed
- BiologyThe Journal of clinical investigation
- 3 October 2005
Important roles for ER-initiated cell death pathways have been recognized for several diseases, including hypoxia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegeneration, heart disease, and diabetes.
Mitochondrial control of cell death
In many instances, permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes is a rate-limiting step of apoptotic or necrotic cell demise. This has important consequences for the pathophysiology of cell death, as…
Cell death and endoplasmic reticulum stress: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities
The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum represents a cellular stress induced by multiple stimuli and pathological conditions, which triggers an evolutionarily conserved series of signal-transduction events, which constitutes the unfolded protein response.
Mitochondria and apoptosis.
A variety of key events in apoptosis focus on mitochondria, including the release of caspase activators (such as cytochrome c), changes in electron transport, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane…
IAP family proteins--suppressors of apoptosis.
Although the mechanism used by the IAPs to suppress cell death remains debated, several studies have provided insights into the biochemical functions of these intriguing proteins and a variety of reports have suggested an important role for the I APs in some human diseases.
ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms.
Tumor suppressor p53 is a regulator of bcl-2 and bax gene expression in vitro and in vivo.
It is demonstrated that a temperature-sensitive p53 induces temperature-dependent decreases in the expression of the apoptosis-suppressing gene bcl-2 in the murine leukemia cell M1, while simultaneously stimulating increases in theexpression of bax, a gene which encodes a dominant-inhibitor of the Bcl-1 protein.
Regulation of cell death protease caspase-9 by phosphorylation.
Caspases are intracellular proteases that function as initiators and effectors of apoptosis. The kinase Akt and p21-Ras, an Akt activator, induced phosphorylation of pro-caspase-9 (pro-Casp9) in…