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An inhibitor of Bcl-2 family proteins induces regression of solid tumours
Proteins in the Bcl-2 family are central regulators of programmed cell death, and members that inhibit apoptosis, such as Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, are overexpressed in many cancers and contribute to tumourExpand
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Tumor suppressor p53 is a direct transcriptional activator of the human bax gene
The bax gene promoter region contains four motifs with homology to consensus p53-binding sites. In cotransfection assays using p53-deficient tumor cell lines, wild-type but not mutant p53 expressionExpand
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress: cell life and death decisions.
Disturbances in the normal functions of the ER lead to an evolutionarily conserved cell stress response, the unfolded protein response, which is aimed initially at compensating for damage but canExpand
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Mitochondrial control of cell death
In many instances, permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes is a rate-limiting step of apoptotic or necrotic cell demise. This has important consequences for the pathophysiology of cell death, asExpand
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Mitochondria and apoptosis.
A variety of key events in apoptosis focus on mitochondria, including the release of caspase activators (such as cytochrome c), changes in electron transport, loss of mitochondrial transmembraneExpand
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Cell death and endoplasmic reticulum stress: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities
The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents a cellular stress induced by multiple stimuli and pathological conditions. These include hypoxia, oxidative injury,Expand
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IAP family proteins--suppressors of apoptosis.
Apoptosis is a physiological cell suicide program that is critical for the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. Dysregulation of cell death pathways occur in cancer, autoimmune andExpand
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ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms.
The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developedExpand
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Tumor suppressor p53 is a regulator of bcl-2 and bax gene expression in vitro and in vivo.
The p53 tumor suppressor gene product can induce apoptotic cell death through an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that a temperature-sensitive p53 induces temperature-dependent decreases in theExpand
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Regulation of cell death protease caspase-9 by phosphorylation.
Caspases are intracellular proteases that function as initiators and effectors of apoptosis. The kinase Akt and p21-Ras, an Akt activator, induced phosphorylation of pro-caspase-9 (pro-Casp9) inExpand
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