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Apoptosis is the term given to programmed cell death, which has been widely connected to a number of intracranial pathologies including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and more recently subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a disease, without any form of effective treatment, that affects mainly the young and middle aged and as a result is(More)
Nitrite (NO(2)(-)) is an intrinsic signaling molecule that is reduced to NO during ischemia and limits apoptosis and cytotoxicity at reperfusion in the mammalian heart, liver, and brain. Although the mechanism of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection is unknown, NO is a mediator of the ischemic preconditioning cell-survival program. Analogous to the temporally(More)
The occurrence of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) during early fetal or neonatal stages of an individual leads to the damaging of immature neurons resulting in behavioral and psychological dysfunctions, such as motor or learning disabilities, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or even death. No effective treatment is currently available and this study is the first to use(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cell death, especially apoptosis, occurred in brain tissues after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We examined the relationships between apoptosis and the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), brain edema, and mortality in an established endovascular perforation model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS A pan-caspase inhibitor(More)
BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease remains the principal cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic mice display exacerbated injury following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) and are resistant to most therapeutic interventions. We have reported that sodium sulfide (Na2S) therapy confers cardioprotection during MI/R in non-diabetic(More)
Hypoxia-ischemia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period with an incidence of 1/4000 live births. Biochemical events such as energy failure, membrane depolarization, brain edema, an increase of neurotransmitter release and inhibition of uptake, an increase of intracellular Ca(2+), production of oxygen-free radicals, lipid(More)
Secondary injury following traumatic spinal cord injury is induced by the activation of a number of cellular and molecular changes. RhoA, a small GTPase, regulates the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, gene expression, cell proliferation, and has been implicated in the regenerative process. This study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of(More)
Calpains and cathepsins are two families of proteases that play an important role in ischemic cell death. In this study, we investigated the effect of E64d, a mu-calpain and cathepsin B inhibitor, in the prevention of neuronal and endothelial apoptotic cell death after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Rats underwent 2 hr of transient focal ischemia from(More)
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is defined by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) as a treatment in which a patient intermittingly breathes 100% oxygen under a pressure that is greater than the pressure at sea level [a pressure greater than 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA)]. HBO has been shown to be a potent means to increase the oxygen content of(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a transcription factor specifically activated by hypoxia. Activation of proapoptotic caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways, by binding with tumor suppressor p53, HIF-1alpha could lead to harmful actions such as apoptosis. We examined whether increasing oxygen levels by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) offers(More)