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Measurements of hepatic iron concentration (HIC) are important predictors of transfusional iron burden and long-term outcome in patients with transfusion-dependent anemias. The goal of this work was to develop a readily available, noninvasive method for clinical HIC measurement. The relaxation rates R2 (1/T2) and R2* (1/T2*) measured by magnetic resonance(More)
Rotary traveling-wave oscillators (RTWOs) represent a new transmission-line approach to gigahertz-rate clock generation. Using the inherently stable LC characteristics of on-chip VLSI interconnect, the clock distribution network becomes a low-impedance distributed oscillator. The RTWO operates by creating a rotating traveling wave within a closed-loop(More)
spherical and hyperbolic space. It is divided into two equal-sized parts: the first is devoted to the two-dimensional case, where much more is known than in the n-dimensional setting, which is discussed in the second part. In addition, there is an appendix providing some important background information, essentially from convex geometry. Many of the(More)
We present an optimal experiment design methodology and a superior and fully automated model generation procedure for identifying a class of broad-band multiharmonic behavioral models in the frequency domain. The approach reduces the number of nonlinear measurements needed, minimizes the time to generate the data from simulations, reduces the time to(More)
BACKGROUND Measurement of myocardial iron is key to the clinical management of patients at risk of siderotic cardiomyopathy. The cardiovascular magnetic resonance relaxation parameter R2* (assessed clinically via its reciprocal, T2*) measured in the ventricular septum is used to assess cardiac iron, but iron calibration and distribution data in humans are(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with β thalassemia intermedia can have substantial iron overload, irrespectively of their transfusion status, secondary to increased intestinal iron absorption. This study evaluates whether iron overload in patients with β thalassemia intermedia is associated with morbidity. DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study of 168(More)
BACKGROUND Transfusional therapy for thalassemia major and sickle cell disease can lead to iron deposition and damage to the heart, liver, and endocrine organs. Iron causes the MRI parameters T1, T2, and T2* to shorten in these organs, which creates a potential mechanism for iron quantification. However, because of the danger and variability of cardiac(More)
PURPOSE To determine normative R2* values in the liver and heart at 3T, and establish the relationship between R2* at 3T and 1.5T over a range of tissue iron concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 20 healthy control subjects and 14 transfusion-dependent patients were scanned at 1.5T and 3T. At each field strength R2* imaging was performed in the(More)
This paper considers an approach to nonlinear model-order reduction for RF/microwave integrated circuits (ICs) from the perspective of "black-box" behavioral modeling. We present a systematic methodology for creating behavioral models using techniques developed from concepts in system identification, nonlinear dynamics, computational geometry, and(More)
Iron overload due to increased intestinal iron absorption represents an important clinical problem in patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT), particularly as they advance in age. Current models for iron metabolism in patients with beta (β)-thalassemia intermedia (TI) suggest that suppression of serum hepcidin results in increased iron(More)