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CONTEXT Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) is a multifunctional protein involved in several tumorigenic mechanisms, including angiogenesis. PTTG has been shown to promote angiogenesis, a key rate-limiting step in tumor progression, by up-regulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether(More)
CONTEXT The clinical effectiveness of ablative radioiodine treatment of thyroid tumors is limited by the availability of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) at the plasma membrane (PM) for uptake of ¹³¹I. A significant proportion of well-differentiated thyroid tumors are unable to concentrate sufficient radioiodine for effective therapy, and in other tumor(More)
Angiogenesis is coordinated with follicular cell growth in goitrogenesis. The angiopoietins, Ang-1 and Ang-2, are angiogenic growth factors acting through Tie-2, a tyrosine kinase receptor. We have examined the expression and regulation of the angiopoietins and Tie-2 in human and rat thyroids. In human goiters there was increased Tie-2 immunostaining,(More)
Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. When fully expressed, it is characterized by inflam-matory soft tissue changes, exophthalmos, ocular dysmotility causing diplopia, and, rarely, sight-threatening dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). The prevalence of GO among Graves' patients seems lately declining, probably(More)
The potential autocrine role of human thyroid vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) was examined using the VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor, ZM306416HCl. ZM306416HCl reduced VEGFR2 phosphorylation and inhibited endogenous, steady-state levels of p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation. It potently inhibited the secretion of plasminogen activators (PA) and(More)
From collagenase digests of human thyroid, endothelial cells were separated from follicular cells by their greater adherence to gelatin-coated plates. Endothelial cells were further purified using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, selecting for cells expressing factor VIII-related antigen. Isolated cells were negative for thyroglobulin and calcitonin(More)
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