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The positioning of centrosomes, or microtubule-organizing centres, within cells plays a critical part in animal development. Here we show that, in Drosophila embryos undergoing mitosis, the positioning of centrosomes within bipolar spindles and between daughter nuclei is determined by a balance of opposing forces generated by a bipolar kinesin motor,(More)
Drosophila cellularization and animal cell cytokinesis rely on the coordinated functions of the microfilament and microtubule cytoskeletal systems. To identify new proteins involved in cellularization and cytokinesis, we have conducted a biochemical screen for microfilament/microtubule-associated proteins (MMAPs). 17 MMAPs were identified; seven have been(More)
The Hedgehog (HH) signaling proteins control cell fates and patterning during animal development. In Drosophila, HH protein induces the transcription of target genes encoding secondary signals such as DPP and WG proteins by opposing a repressor system. The repressors include Costal2, protein kinase A, and the HH receptor Patched. Like HH, the kinase Fused(More)
Polarized exocytosis plays a major role in development and cell differentiation but the mechanisms that target exocytosis to specific membrane domains in animal cells are still poorly understood. We characterized Drosophila Sec6, a component of the exocyst complex that is believed to tether secretory vesicles to specific plasma membrane sites. sec6(More)
The hedgehog gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a secreted protein (HH) that plays a vital role in cell fate and patterning. Here we describe a protein complex that mediates signal transduction from HH. The complex includes the products of at least three genes: fused (a protein-serine/threonine kinase), cubitus interruptus (a transcription factor), and(More)
Drosophila melanogaster cellularization is a dramatic form of cytokinesis in which a membrane furrow simultaneously encapsulates thousands of cortical nuclei of the syncytial embryo to generate a polarized cell layer. Formation of this cleavage furrow depends on Golgi-based secretion and microtubules. During cellularization, specific Golgi move along(More)
During the cleavage stage of animal embryogenesis, cell numbers increase dramatically without growth, and a shift from maternal to zygotic genetic control occurs called the midblastula transition. Although these processes are fundamental to animal development, the molecular mechanisms controlling them are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that(More)
The molecular mechanisms driving the conserved metazoan developmental shift referred to as the mid-blastula transition (MBT) remain mysterious. Typically, cleavage divisions give way to longer asynchronous cell cycles with the acquisition of a gap phase. In Drosophila, rapid synchronous nuclear divisions must pause at the MBT to allow the formation of a(More)
The radiopharmaceutical, metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) acts as an analog of norepinephrine (NE). Experiments in rats were carried out to determine how closely the movements of [125I]MIBG in the heart mimicked those of [3H]NE, and if the changes [125I] MIBG concentrations would reflect injury to, and function of, adrenergic neurons in the heart. Injury to(More)