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The biolistic process is still rapidly evolving. We do not anticipate further major improvements in biolistic apparatus. There will probably still be further major improvements in particles, DNA coating, and vectors, as well as significant further advances in understanding of biological determinants of cell penetration and survival. The technology has(More)
We show that the genetic transformation of Nicotiana tabacum can be achieved by bombarding intact cells and tissues with DNA-coated particles. Leaves or suspension culture cells were treated with tungsten microprojectiles carrying plasmid DNA containing a neomycin phosphotransferase gene. Callus harboring the foreign gene was recovered from the bombarded(More)
Exploiting the biolistic process we have generated stable transgenic bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants with unlinked and linked foreign genes. Co-transformation was conducted using plasmid constructions containing a fusion of the gus and neo genes, which were co-introduced with the methionine-rich 2S albumin gene isolated from the Brazil nut and the(More)
The antimicrobial peptide MSI-99, an analog of magainin 2, was expressed via the chloroplast genome to obtain high levels of expression in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Petit Havana) plants. Polymerase chain reaction products and Southern blots confirmed integration of MSI-99 into the chloroplast genome and achievement of homoplasmy, whereas(More)
Intact maize cells were bombarded with microprojectiles bearing plasmid DNA coding for selectable (neomycin phosphotransferase [NPT II]) and screenable (beta-glucuronidase [GUS]) marker genes. Kanamycin-resistant calli were selected from bombarded cells, and these calli carried copies of the NPT II and GUS genes as determined by Southern blot analysis. All(More)
Tungsten microprojectiles coated with nucleic acid and accelerated to velocities of approximately 500 m/s, can penetrate living cells and tissues with consequent expression of the introduced genes (Klein et al. 1987). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used here as a model system to define the basic parameters governing the biolistic (biological-ballistic)(More)
BACKGROUND Avida is a computer program that performs evolution experiments with digital organisms. Previous work has used the program to study the evolutionary origin of complex features, namely logic operations, but has consistently used extremely large mutational fitness effects. The present study uses Avida to better understand the role of low-impact(More)
Foreign genes were expressed in liver and skin cells of live mice by using a new apparatus to accelerate DNA-coated microprojectiles into tissues. After introduction of a plasmid in which the firefly luciferase gene was controlled by the human beta-actin promoter, luciferase activity was detectable for up to 14 days in mouse tissues (skin and liver). In(More)
Five bacterial species were transformed using particle gun-technology. No pretreatment of cells was necessary. Physical conditions (helium pressure, target cell distance and gap distance) and biological conditions (cell growth phase, osmoticum concentration, and cell density) were optimized for biolistic transformation of Escherichia coli and these(More)