John C. Sanford

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The genetic transformation of mitochondria and chloroplasts has been an intractable problem. The newly developed "biolistic" (biological ballistic) process was used to deliver DNA into yeast cells to stably transform their mitochondria. A nonreverting strain, which is respiratory deficient because of a deletion in the mitochondrial oxi3 gene, was bombarded(More)
BACKGROUND Avida is a computer program that performs evolution experiments with digital organisms. Previous work has used the program to study the evolutionary origin of complex features, namely logic operations, but has consistently used extremely large mutational fitness effects. The present study uses Avida to better understand the role of low-impact(More)
The H1N1 influenza A virus has been circulating in the human population for over 95 years, first manifesting itself in the pandemic of 1917–1918. Initial mortality was extremely high, but dropped exponentially over time. Influenza viruses have high mutation rates, and H1N1 has undergone significant genetic changes since 1918. The exact nature of H1N1(More)
BACKGROUND It is increasingly evident that there are multiple and overlapping patterns within the genome, and that these patterns contain different types of information--regarding both genome function and genome history. In order to discover additional genomic patterns which may have biological significance, novel strategies are required. To partially(More)
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1. Abstract Genetic change at the level of the population usually occurs too slowly to be studied in sufficient detail in nature, which is why population geneticists primarily rely upon theoretical studies, using either mathematical modeling or numerical simulations. Studying population change on a theoretical level is challenging because so many components(More)
We have calculated the consensus sequence for human mitochondrial DNA using over 800 available sequences. Analysis of this consensus reveals an unexpected lack of diversity within human mtDNA worldwide. Not only is more than 83% of the mitochondrial genome invariant, but in over 99% of the variable positions, the majority allele was found in at least 90% of(More)
Like all articles in BMC journals, this peer-reviewed article was published immediately upon acceptance. It can be downloaded, printed and distributed freely for any purposes (see copyright notice below). which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Background
Fields of Research Specialization Mode of action and neurotoxicity of synthetic insecticides, natural toxins, and drugs Mechanisms of resistance to insecticides and nematicides Expression and function of membrane transporters for neurotransmitters (2008) Nematicidal activity of anion transport blockers against Meloidogyne incognita, Ceanorhabditis elegans,(More)
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