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It has been 30 years since the discovery that repeated electrical stimulation of neural pathways can lead to long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices. With its relevance to processes such as learning and memory, the technique has produced a vast literature on mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in animal models. To date, the most promising method for(More)
1. In ten normal volunteers, a transcranial magnetic or electric stimulus that was subthreshold for evoking an EMG response in relaxed muscles was used to condition responses evoked by a later, suprathreshold magnetic or electric test shock. In most experiments the test stimulus was given to the lateral part of the motor strip in order to evoke EMG(More)
1. Using two magnetic stimulators, we investigated the effect of a conditioning magnetic stimulus over the motor cortex of one hemisphere on the size of EMG responses evoked in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle by a magnetic test stimulus given over the opposite hemisphere. 2. A single conditioning shock to one hemisphere produced inhibition of the(More)
1. EMG responses evoked in hand muscles by transcranial stimulation over the motor cortex were conditioned by a single motor threshold electrical stimulus to the median nerve at the wrist in a total of ten healthy subjects and in five patients who had electrodes implanted chronically into the cervical epidural space. 2. The median nerve stimulus suppressed(More)
1. The reaction time to a visual stimulus shortens significantly when an unexpected acoustic startle is delivered together with the 'go' signal in healthy human subjects. In this paper we have investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying this effect. If the commands for the startle and the voluntary reaction were superimposed at some level in the(More)
1. In seven normal subjects, subthreshold transcranial magnetic conditioning stimuli (using a figure-of-eight coil) were applied over the motor cortex in order to evoke activity in intracortical neuronal circuits. The net effect on cortical excitability was evaluated by measuring the effect on the size of EMG responses elicited in the abductor digiti minimi(More)
Intracortical inhibition was investigated in normal human volunteers by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, using a new, computer-assisted threshold-tracking method. Motor threshold was defined as the stimulus amplitude required to evoke a motor evoked potential of 0.2 mV (peak-to-peak) in abductor pollicis brevis, and inhibition was measured as(More)
OBJECTIVE To induce prolonged motor cortical excitability reductions by transcranial direct current stimulation in the human. METHODS Cathodal direct current stimulation was applied transcranially to the hand area of the human primary motor cortex from 5 to 9 min in separate sessions in twelve healthy subjects. Cortico-spinal excitability was tested by(More)
The after-effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are highly variable between individuals. Because different populations of cortical neurons are stimulated more easily or are more excitable in different people at different times, the variability may not be due to differences between individuals in the plasticity of cortical synapses,(More)