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Proteins in the Bcl-2 family are central regulators of programmed cell death, and members that inhibit apoptosis, such as Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2, are overexpressed in many cancers and contribute to tumour initiation, progression and resistance to therapy. Bcl-X(L) expression correlates with chemo-resistance of tumour cell lines, and reductions in Bcl-2 increase(More)
This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and(More)
The bax gene promoter region contains four motifs with homology to consensus p53-binding sites. In cotransfection assays using p53-deficient tumor cell lines, wild-type but not mutant p53 expression plasmids transactivated a reporter gene plasmid that utilized the bax gene promoter to drive transcription of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. In addition,(More)
The proapoptotic Bax protein induces cell death by acting on mitochondria. Bax binds to the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC), a composite proteaceous channel that is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Immunodepletion of Bax from PTPC or purification of PTPC from Bax-deficient mice yielded a PTPC that could not(More)
The Ca2+-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin induces apoptosis, but the mechanism is unknown. Calcineurin was found to dephosphorylate BAD, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, thus enhancing BAD heterodimerization with Bcl-xL and promoting apoptosis. The Ca2+-induced dephosphorylation of BAD correlated with its dissociation from 14-3-3 in the(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves as a cellular storehouse for Ca(2+), and Ca(2+) released from the ER plays a role in a host of critical signaling reactions, including exocytosis, contraction, metabolism, regulation of transcription, fertilization, and apoptosis. Given the central role played by the ER, our understanding of these signaling processes(More)
Exit of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol has been implicated as an important step in apoptosis. In the cytosol, cytochrome c binds to the CED-4 homologue, Apaf-1, thereby triggering Apaf-1-mediated activation of caspase-9. Caspase-9 is thought to propagate the death signal by triggering other caspase activation events, the details of which(More)
Only a small proportion of the mouse genome is transcribed into mature messenger RNA transcripts. There is an international collaborative effort to identify all full-length mRNA transcripts from the mouse, and to ensure that each is represented in a physical collection of clones. Here we report the manual annotation of 60,770 full-length mouse complementary(More)
Early in programmed cell death (apoptosis), mitochondrial membrane permeability increases. This is at least in part due to opening of the permeability transition (PT) pore, a multiprotein complex built up at the contact site between the inner and the outer mitochondrial membranes. The PT pore has been previously implicated in clinically relevant massive(More)
Expression of a constitutively active R-ras converted two cell lines that grow in suspension into highly adherent cells. There was little change in cell surface expression of integrins, but attachment to surfaces coated with the integrin ligands was greatly enhanced. Cells transfected with activated R-ras bound integrin ligands from solution with higher(More)