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OBJECTIVE To review and analyze systematically the reported cases of "true" posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm. METHODS A retrospective review of the published literature was performed, and a meta-analysis of individual patient data was conducted. RESULTS Pooled data showed that "true" PCoA aneurysms represent about 1.3% (95% confidence(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common indication for cervical spine surgery. Surgical options include anterior, posterior, or combined procedures each with specific advantages and disadvantages. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES This article will provide a description of the various anterior alternatives and discuss the available evidence used in(More)
The mechanisms by which homeoproteins bind selectively to target genes in vivo have long remained unresolved. Here we report that PIAS1 confers DNA-binding specificity on the Msx1 homeoprotein by regulating its subnuclear localization and proximity to target genes. We demonstrate that the interaction of Msx1 with PIAS1, but not its sumoylation, is required(More)
In this report, we have investigated the relationship between androgen levels and prostate tumorigenesis in Nkx3.1; Pten mutant mice, a genetically engineered mouse model of human prostate cancer. By experimentally manipulating serum levels of testosterone in these mice for an extended period (i.e., 7 months), we have found that prolonged exposure of(More)
OBJECT The Internet has become a widespread source for disseminating health information to large numbers of people. Such is the case for spine surgery as well. Given the complexity of spinal surgeries, an important point to consider is whether these resources are easily read and understood by most Americans. The average national reading grade level has been(More)
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptors have been implicated to play a role in both the treatment and pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the coupling of this receptor to signals, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), that elicit long-term neuronal changes may be relevant. In the present study we examined the(More)
BACKGROUND Techniques for stereotactic brain biopsy have evolved in parallel with the imaging modalities used to visualize the brain. OBJECTIVE To describe our technique for performing stereotactic brain biopsy using a compact, low-field, intraoperative magnetic resonance imager (iMRI). METHODS Thirty-three patients underwent stereotactic brain biopsies(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical spondylosis is now recognised as the leading cause of myelopathy and spinal cord dysfunction worldwide. Chronic spinal cord compression results in chronic inflammation, cellular apoptosis, and microvacular insufficiency, which are thought to the biologic basis for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). QUESTIONS/PURPOSES Our purpose(More)
We present a novel salvage technique for pediatric subaxial cervical spine fusion in which lateral mass screw fixation was not possible due to anatomic constraints. The case presentation details a 4-year-old patient with C5-C6 flexion/distraction injury with bilateral jumped facets. Posterior cervical fixation was attempted; however, lateral mass fracture(More)
STUDY DESIGN Observational study. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate use of magnetic resonance (MR) neurography to visualize the course of the lumbar plexus at the L4-L5 disc space. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Risk of injury to the lumbar plexus during lateral transpsoas approach for lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is significant. We describe a new technique for(More)