John C. Middlebrooks

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In keeping with our promise earlier in this review, we summarize here the process by which we believe spatial cues are used for localizing a sound source in a free-field listening situation. We believe it entails two parallel processes: 1. The azimuth of the source is determined using differences in interaural time or interaural intensity, whichever is(More)
This study measured the ability of subjects to localize broadband sound sources that varied in both horizontal and vertical location. Brief (150 ms) sounds were presented in a free field, and subjects reported the apparent stimulus location by turning to face the sound source; head orientation was measured electromagnetically. Localization of continuous(More)
Although the auditory cortex plays a necessary role in sound localization, physiological investigations in the cortex reveal inhomogeneous sampling of auditory space that is difficult to reconcile with localization behavior under the assumption of local spatial coding. Most neurons respond maximally to sounds located far to the left or right side, with few(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that the spike patterns of cortical neurons vary systematically as a function of sound-source location such that the response of a single neuron can signal the location of a sound source throughout 360 degrees of azimuth. The present study examined specific features of spike patterns that might transmit information related(More)
We evaluated two hypothetical codes for sound-source location in the auditory cortex. The topographical code assumed that single neurons are selective for particular locations and that sound-source locations are coded by the cortical location of small populations of maximally activated neurons. The distributed code assumed that the responses of individual(More)
This study examined inter-subject differences in the transfer functions from the free field to the human ear canal, which are commonly know as head-related transfer functions. The directional components of such transfer functions are referred here to as directional transfer functions (DTFs). The DTFs of 45 subjects varied systematically among subjects in(More)
The area of the cat's primary auditory cortex (AI) within which high frequency sounds are represented can be subdivided using functional criteria. Within each subdivision, or "binaural interaction band," all recorded neurons display similar responses to binaural stimulation. The current study distinguishes the thalamic sources of input to these subdivisions(More)
Human subjects localized brief 1/6-oct bandpassed noise bursts that were centered at 6, 8, 10, and 12 kHz. All testing was done under binaural conditions. The horizontal component of subjects' responses was accurate, comparable to that for broadband localization, but the vertical and front/back components exhibited systematic errors. Specifically, responses(More)
We compared the spatial tuning properties of neurons in two fields [primary auditory cortex (A1) and posterior auditory field (PAF)] of cat auditory cortex. Broadband noise bursts of 80-ms duration were presented from loudspeakers throughout 360 degrees in the horizontal plane (azimuth) or 260 degrees in the vertical median plane (elevation). Sound levels(More)
This study examined virtual sound localization in three conditions that differed according to the directional transfer functions (DTFs) that were used to synthesize the virtual targets. The own-ear and other-ear conditions used DTFs measured from listeners' own ears and those measured from other subjects, respectively. The scaled-ear condition employed(More)