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[1] Ecosystem CO 2 exchange and atmosphere boundary layer (ABL) mixing are correlated diurnally and seasonally as they are both driven by solar insulation. Tracer transport models predict that these covariance signals produce a meridional gradient of annual mean CO 2 concentration in the marine boundary layer that is half as strong as the signal produced by(More)
Netrin-G1 is a lipid-anchored protein that is structurally related to the netrin family of axon guidance molecules. Netrin-G1 does not bind any of the known netrin receptors and its function is not known. Here we identify human netrin-G1 ligand (NGL-1), a transmembrane protein containing leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) domains that(More)
[1] We introduce a tool to determine surface fluxes from atmospheric concentration data in the midst of distributed sources or sinks over land, the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, and illustrate the use of the tool with CO 2 data over North America. Anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of trace gases at the surface cause large(More)
Mutations in the tyrosine kinase receptor trkB or in one of its natural ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), lead to severe hyperphagia and obesity in rodents and/or humans. Here, we show that peripheral administration of neurotrophin-4 (NT4), the second natural ligand for trkB, suppresses appetite and body weight in a dose-dependent manner in(More)
In this paper, we demonstrate a technique called active probing used to study TCP implementations. Active probing treats a TCP implementation as a black box, and uses a set of procedures to probe the black box. By studying the way TCP responds to the probes, one can deduce several characteristics of the implementation. The technique is particularly useful(More)
— To support real-time applications such as Voice-over-IP within a 802.11 Wireless LAN, efficient handoff mechanisms are required when a mobile client moves from one Access Point to another. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and performance results of MAC layer (layer-2) handoff algorithms which implement make-before-break mechanisms at(More)
Imperfect representation of vertical mixing near the surface in atmospheric transport models leads to uncertainties in modelled tracer mixing ratios. When using the atmosphere as an integrator to derive surface-atmosphere exchange from mixing ratio observations made in the atmospheric boundary layer, this uncertainty has to be quantified and taken into(More)
This paper describes the coupling between a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model, the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. The primary motivation for developing this coupled model has been to reduce transport errors in(More)
[1] Biomass burning in the Amazon provides strong input of aerosols into the atmosphere, with potential effects on precipitation, cloud properties, and radiative balance. However, few studies to date have systematically examined these effects at the scale of the Amazon Basin, over an entire burning season, using available data sets. We empirically study the(More)
[1] A conceptual framework is developed using atmospheric measurements from aircraft to determine fluxes of CO 2 from a continental land area. The concepts are applied to measurements of CO 2 , O 3 , and CO concentrations from the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-2B, April–May 1987) to estimate fluxes of CO 2 for central and eastern Amazonia late in(More)