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Neutralizing antibodies (Nab) are a principal component of an effective human immune response to many pathogens, yet their role in HIV-1 infection is unclear. To gain a better understanding of this role, we examined plasma from patients with acute HIV infection. Here we report the detection of autologous Nab as early as 52 days after detection of(More)
The synthetic peptide T-20 (enfuvirtide) represents the first of a new class of antiretroviral compounds to demonstrate in vivo potency by targeting a step in viral entry. T-20 inhibits a conformational change in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) that is required for fusion between HIV-1 and target cell(More)
Identification of full-length transmitted HIV-1 genomes could be instrumental in HIV-1 pathogenesis, microbicide, and vaccine research by enabling the direct analysis of those viruses actually responsible for productive clinical infection. We show in 12 acutely infected subjects (9 clade B and 3 clade C) that complete HIV-1 genomes of transmitted/founder(More)
T-20 is a synthetic peptide that potently inhibits replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by interfering with the transition of the transmembrane protein, gp41, to a fusion active state following interactions of the surface glycoprotein, gp120, with CD4 and coreceptor molecules displayed on the target cell surface. Although T-20 is postulated to(More)
All presently available replication-competent proviral clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are derived from cell culture-amplified virus. Since tissue culture is highly selective for viral strains with an in vitro growth advantage, such clones may not be representative of the biologically relevant virus present in vivo. In this study, we(More)
Lentiviral vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hold great promise for gene therapy. However, the possibility of generating replication-competent retrovirus (RCR) through genetic recombination raises concerns for safety. Here we describe a novel HIV-based packaging system (trans-lentiviral) that splits gag/gag-pol into two parts:(More)
We have developed a high-throughput platform to detect the presence of HIV-1 and SIV-specific ADCC-mediating antibody responses. The assay is based on the hydrolysis of a cell-permeable fluorogenic peptide substrate containing a sequence recognized by the serine protease, Granzyme B (GzB). GzB is delivered into target cells by cytotoxic effector cells as a(More)
PURPOSE In vivo studies have focused on the latter stages of the bone metastatic process (osteolysis), whereas little is known about earlier events, e.g., arrival, localization, and initial colonization. Defining these initial steps may potentially identify the critical points susceptible to therapeutic intervention. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN MDA-MB-435 human(More)
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a crucial role during biogenesis of many transmembrane proteins. Previously, it had not been possible to evaluate PTMs in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the epithelial ion channel responsible for cystic fibrosis, because of difficulty obtaining sufficient amounts of purified protein.(More)
Vpu proteins of pandemic HIV-1 M strains degrade the viral receptor CD4 and antagonize human tetherin to promote viral release and replication. We show that Vpus from SIVgsn, SIVmus, and SIVmon infecting Cercopithecus primate species also degrade CD4 and antagonize tetherin. In contrast, SIVcpz, the immediate precursor of HIV-1, whose Vpu shares a common(More)