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Neutralizing antibodies (Nab) are a principal component of an effective human immune response to many pathogens, yet their role in HIV-1 infection is unclear. To gain a better understanding of this role, we examined plasma from patients with acute HIV infection. Here we report the detection of autologous Nab as early as 52 days after detection of(More)
PURPOSE In vivo studies have focused on the latter stages of the bone metastatic process (osteolysis), whereas little is known about earlier events, e.g., arrival, localization, and initial colonization. Defining these initial steps may potentially identify the critical points susceptible to therapeutic intervention. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN MDA-MB-435 human(More)
The synthetic peptide T-20 (enfuvirtide) represents the first of a new class of antiretroviral compounds to demonstrate in vivo potency by targeting a step in viral entry. T-20 inhibits a conformational change in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) that is required for fusion between HIV-1 and target cell(More)
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis including the formation of lipid laden macrophages and the development of inflammation. However, oxidative stress-induced molecular signaling that regulates the development of vascular calcification has not been investigated in depth. Osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth(More)
BACKGROUND The KISS1 protein suppresses metastasis of several tumor models without blocking orthotopic tumor growth, but the mechanism remains elusive. For its role in human sexual maturation, KISS1 protein is secreted and processed to kisspeptins, which bind to the G protein-coupled receptor GPR54. We tested the hypothesis that KISS1 secretion is required(More)
T-20 is a synthetic peptide that potently inhibits replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by interfering with the transition of the transmembrane protein, gp41, to a fusion active state following interactions of the surface glycoprotein, gp120, with CD4 and coreceptor molecules displayed on the target cell surface. Although T-20 is postulated to(More)
UNLABELLED Standardized assessments of HIV-1 vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses are complicated by the genetic and antigenic variability of the viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs). To address these issues, suitable reference strains are needed that are representative of the global epidemic. Several panels have been recommended previously, but(More)
Identification of full-length transmitted HIV-1 genomes could be instrumental in HIV-1 pathogenesis, microbicide, and vaccine research by enabling the direct analysis of those viruses actually responsible for productive clinical infection. We show in 12 acutely infected subjects (9 clade B and 3 clade C) that complete HIV-1 genomes of transmitted/founder(More)
All presently available replication-competent proviral clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are derived from cell culture-amplified virus. Since tissue culture is highly selective for viral strains with an in vitro growth advantage, such clones may not be representative of the biologically relevant virus present in vivo. In this study, we(More)
Lentiviral vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hold great promise for gene therapy. However, the possibility of generating replication-competent retrovirus (RCR) through genetic recombination raises concerns for safety. Here we describe a novel HIV-based packaging system (trans-lentiviral) that splits gag/gag-pol into two parts:(More)