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Neutralizing antibodies (Nab) are a principal component of an effective human immune response to many pathogens, yet their role in HIV-1 infection is unclear. To gain a better understanding of this role, we examined plasma from patients with acute HIV infection. Here we report the detection of autologous Nab as early as 52 days after detection of(More)
Identification of full-length transmitted HIV-1 genomes could be instrumental in HIV-1 pathogenesis, microbicide, and vaccine research by enabling the direct analysis of those viruses actually responsible for productive clinical infection. We show in 12 acutely infected subjects (9 clade B and 3 clade C) that complete HIV-1 genomes of transmitted/founder(More)
BACKGROUND A recombinant canarypox vector expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag, Pro, and membrane-linked gp120 (vCP1521), combined with a bivalent gp120 protein boost (AIDSVAX B/E), provided modest protection against HIV-1 infection in a community-based population in Thailand (RV144 trial). No protection was observed in Thai injection(More)
This paper describes a new role for the cysteine-cysteine (CC) chemokines RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta on human macrophage function, which is the induction of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated trypanocidal activity. In a previous report, we showed that RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta enhance Trypanosoma cruzi uptake and promote parasite killing by human(More)
Inherently unstable mRNAs contain AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3' untranslated regions that act as mRNA stability determinants by interacting with ARE-binding proteins (ARE-BPs). We have destabilized two mRNAs by fusing sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins to KSRP, a decay-promoting ARE-BP, in a tethering assay. These results support a model that KSRP(More)
Quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) methods were used to quantify virion-associated human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma from 66 patients with Centers for Disease Control stage I to IVC1 infection. HIV-1 RNA, ranging from 100 to nearly 22,000,000 copies per milliliter of plasma (corresponding to 50 to 11,000,000(More)
Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) most often results from productive infection by a single transmitted/founder (T/F) virus, indicating a stringent mucosal bottleneck. Understanding the viral traits that overcome this bottleneck could have important implications for HIV-1 vaccine design and other prevention strategies. Most(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase protein (IN) is essential for integration of the viral DNA into host cell chromosomes. Since IN is expressed and assembled into virions as part of the 160-kDa Gag-Pol precursor polyprotein and catalyzes integration of the provirus in infected cells as a mature 32-kDa protein, mutations in IN are(More)
The neural adhesion/recognition protein L1 (L1CAM; CD171) has been shown or implicated to function in stimulation of cell motility in several cancer types, including high-grade gliomas. Our previous work demonstrated the expression and function of L1 protein in stimulation of cell motility in rat glioma cells. However, the mechanism of this stimulation is(More)