John C Kappes

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Neutralizing antibodies (Nab) are a principal component of an effective human immune response to many pathogens, yet their role in HIV-1 infection is unclear. To gain a better understanding of this role, we examined plasma from patients with acute HIV infection. Here we report the detection of autologous Nab as early as 52 days after detection of(More)
The synthetic peptide T-20 (enfuvirtide) represents the first of a new class of antiretroviral compounds to demonstrate in vivo potency by targeting a step in viral entry. T-20 inhibits a conformational change in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) that is required for fusion between HIV-1 and target cell(More)
T-20 is a synthetic peptide that potently inhibits replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by interfering with the transition of the transmembrane protein, gp41, to a fusion active state following interactions of the surface glycoprotein, gp120, with CD4 and coreceptor molecules displayed on the target cell surface. Although T-20 is postulated to(More)
Identification of full-length transmitted HIV-1 genomes could be instrumental in HIV-1 pathogenesis, microbicide, and vaccine research by enabling the direct analysis of those viruses actually responsible for productive clinical infection. We show in 12 acutely infected subjects (9 clade B and 3 clade C) that complete HIV-1 genomes of transmitted/founder(More)
Vpu proteins of pandemic HIV-1 M strains degrade the viral receptor CD4 and antagonize human tetherin to promote viral release and replication. We show that Vpus from SIVgsn, SIVmus, and SIVmon infecting Cercopithecus primate species also degrade CD4 and antagonize tetherin. In contrast, SIVcpz, the immediate precursor of HIV-1, whose Vpu shares a common(More)
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis including the formation of lipid laden macrophages and the development of inflammation. However, oxidative stress-induced molecular signaling that regulates the development of vascular calcification has not been investigated in depth. Osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth(More)
Genome sequences of transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV-1 have been inferred by analyzing single genome amplicons of acute infection plasma viral RNA in the context of a mathematical model of random virus evolution; however, few of these T/F sequences have been molecularly cloned and biologically characterized. Here, we describe the derivation and biological(More)
Defining the virus-host interactions responsible for HIV-1 transmission, including the phenotypic requirements of viruses capable of establishing de novo infections, could be important for AIDS vaccine development. Previous analyses have failed to identify phenotypic properties other than chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CD4+ T-cell tropism that are(More)
PURPOSE In vivo studies have focused on the latter stages of the bone metastatic process (osteolysis), whereas little is known about earlier events, e.g., arrival, localization, and initial colonization. Defining these initial steps may potentially identify the critical points susceptible to therapeutic intervention. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN MDA-MB-435 human(More)
Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) most often results from productive infection by a single transmitted/founder (T/F) virus, indicating a stringent mucosal bottleneck. Understanding the viral traits that overcome this bottleneck could have important implications for HIV-1 vaccine design and other prevention strategies. Most(More)