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BACKGROUND Intrauterine infection may play a role in preterm delivery due to spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) and preterm prolonged rupture of membranes (PPROM). Because bacteria previously associated with preterm delivery are often difficult to culture, a molecular biology approach was used to identify bacterial DNA in placenta and fetal membranes. (More)
BACKGROUND Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection remains a significant problem. The introduction of antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS) systems in the prevention of shunt infection may represent a potential advance; however, there are no randomized controlled trials to establish a robust evidence-based practice. Previously published single-institution cohort(More)
algorithm for differentiation of lung adenocarcinoma and squa-mous cell carcinoma based on large series of whole-tissue sections with validation in small specimens. a new marker of squamous differentiation in undifferentiated large-cell carcinoma of the lung. Persistent pulmonary nodular ground-glass opacity at thin-section CT: histopathologic comparisons.(More)
OBJECT The aim of this study was to establish whether microbiological contamination at the time of shunt insertion can be detected and used to predict the likelihood of subsequent shunt infection. METHODS A prospective study of pediatric patients undergoing primary shunt insertion was undertaken. Following the protocol devised for this study, three swab(More)
BACKGROUND The cause and mechanism of most cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) remain unknown, despite specialist autopsy examination. We reviewed autopsy results to determine whether infection was a cause of SUDI. METHODS We did a systematic retrospective case review of autopsies, done at one specialist centre between 1996 and 2005, of 546(More)
BACKGROUND An increase in the incidence of thoracic empyema in children has been reported. The causative pathogen is often unknown as pleural fluid is frequently sterile at the time of culture. The role of unusual organisms is unclear. AIMS (1) To compare the detection of organisms in pleural fluid from children with empyema using a molecular technique(More)
BACKGROUND Noroviruses are a highly transmissible and major cause of nosocomial gastroenteritis resulting in bed and hospital-ward closures. Where hospital outbreaks are suspected, it is important to determine the routes of spread so that appropriate infection-control procedures can be implemented. To investigate a cluster of norovirus cases occurring in(More)
Mycobacterium abscessus [M. abscessus (sensu lato) or M. abscessus complex] comprises three closely related species: M. abscessus (sensu stricto), hereafter referred to as M. abscessus, M. bolletii and M. massiliense. We describe here an accurate and robust method for distinguishing M. chelonae from M. abscessus, M. bolletii and M. massiliense, using(More)
Recent taxonomic developments, based on 16s and 23s rRNA gene sequences, have divided the family Chlamydiaceae into two genera and nine species, of which five have been found to infect humans. Few simple methods are available to detect and identify all species sensitively and specifically. In this study the suitability of the omp2 gene as a target for(More)
Prevalence of healthcare associated infections remains high in patients in intensive care units (ICU), estimated at 23.4% in 2011. It is important to reduce the overall risk while minimizing the cost and disruption to service provision by targeted infection control interventions. The aim of this study was to develop a monitoring tool to analyze the spatial(More)