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The TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) locus regulates several developmental and biochemical pathways in Arabidopsis, including the formation of hairs on leaves, stems, and roots, and the production of seed mucilage and anthocyanin pigments. The TTG1 locus has been isolated by positional cloning, and its identity was confirmed by complementation of a ttg1(More)
We used DNA sequencing and gel blot surveys to assess the integrity of the chloroplast gene infA, which codes for translation initiation factor 1, in >300 diverse angiosperms. Whereas most angiosperms appear to contain an intact chloroplast infA gene, the gene has repeatedly become defunct in approximately 24 separate lineages of angiosperms, including(More)
Transgene expression from the plant's plastid genome represents a promising strategy in molecular farming because of the plastid's potential to accumulate foreign proteins to high levels and the increased biosafety provided by the maternal mode of organelle inheritance. In this article, we explore the potential of transplastomic plants to produce human(More)
Stromules (stroma-filled tubules) are highly dynamic structures extending from the surface of all plastid types examined so far, including proplastids, chloroplasts, etioplasts, leucoplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. Stromules are usually 0.35-0.85 microm in diameter and of variable length, from short beak-like projections to linear or branched(More)
A 268 bp region (P268) of the pea plastocyanin gene promoter responsible for high-level expression has been shown to interact with the high mobility group proteins HMG-1 and HMG-I/Y isolated from pea shoot chromatin. cDNAs encoding an HMG-1 protein of 154 amino acid residues containing a single HMG-box and a C-terminal acidic tail and an HMG-I/Y-like(More)
The coordinated expression of genes distributed between the nuclear and plastid genomes is essential for the assembly of functional chloroplasts. Although the nucleus has a pre-eminent role in controlling chloroplast biogenesis, there is considerable evidence that the expression of nuclear genes encoding photosynthesis-related proteins is regulated by(More)
Point mutations result from errors made during DNA replication or repair, so they are usually expected to be homogeneous across all regions of a genome. However, we have found a region of chloroplast DNA in plants related to sweetpea (Lathyrus) whose local point mutation rate is at least 20 times higher than elsewhere in the same molecule. There are very(More)
We have used fusions of gibberellin biosynthesis enzymes to green fluorescent protein (GFP) to determine the subcellular localization of the early steps of the pathway. Gibberellin biosynthesis from geranylgeranyl diphosphate is catalysed by enzymes of the terpene cyclase, cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase classes. We(More)
The role of an A/T-rich positive regulatory region (P268, -444 to -177 from the translation start site) of the pea plastocyanin gene (PetE) promoter has been investigated in transgenic plants containing chimeric promoters fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. This region enhanced GUS expression in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants when fused(More)
Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum), has long been one of the classical model species of plant genetics. More recently, solanaceous species have become a model of evolutionary genomics, with several EST projects and a tomato genome project having been initiated. As a first contribution toward deciphering the genetic information(More)