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DYX2 on 6p22 is the most replicated reading disability (RD) locus. By saturating a previously identified peak of association with single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we identified a large polymorphic deletion that encodes tandem repeats of putative brain-related transcription factor binding sites in intron 2 of DCDC2. Alleles of this compound repeat are(More)
Recent psychological and neuropsychological research suggests that executive functions--the cognitive control processes that regulate thought and action--are multifaceted and that different types of executive functions are correlated but separable. The present multivariate twin study of 3 executive functions (inhibiting dominant responses, updating working(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that executive functions (EFs) are related to intelligence, despite neuropsychological results initially considered evidence of no such relation. However, findings that EFs are not unitary raise the issue of how intelligence relates to different EFs. This study examined the relations of fluid and crystallized intelligence and(More)
Although common sense suggests that environmental influences increasingly account for individual differences in behavior as experiences accumulate during the course of life, this hypothesis has not previously been tested, in part because of the large sample sizes needed for an adequately powered analysis. Here we show for general cognitive ability that, to(More)
The multiple regression analysis of twin data in which a cotwin's score is predicted from that of a proband (the member of a twin pair selected because of a deviant score) and the coefficient of relationship provides a powerful test of genetic etiology (DeFries and Fulker: Behav Genet 15:467-473, 1985). Moreover, when an augmented model containing an(More)
This study utilized a sample of 313 eight- to sixteen-year-old same-sex twin pairs (183 monozygotic, 130 dizygotic) to assess the etiology of comorbidity between reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). RD was assessed by a discriminant function score based on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, a standardized(More)
Developmental dyslexia is defined as a specific and significant impairment in reading ability that cannot be explained by deficits in intelligence, learning opportunity, motivation or sensory acuity. It is one of the most frequently diagnosed disorders in childhood, representing a major educational and social problem. It is well established that dyslexia is(More)
INTRODUCTION Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) are complex childhood disorders that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of this comorbidity remains unknown. METHOD Participants were 457 twin pairs from the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center (CLDRC) twin study, an ongoing study of the etiology of RD,(More)
The influence of genetic factors in the comorbidity of spelling disability and hyperactivity was investigated in two samples of 190 and 260 same sex twin pairs. The method of bivariate group heritability was used to estimate the genetic correlation for spelling disability and hyperactivity. A similar though not statistically significant value for the(More)
BACKGROUND Neurocognitive deficits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might be useful intermediate endophenotypes for determining specific genetic pathways that contribute to ADHD. METHODS This study administered 17 measures from prominent neuropsychological theories of ADHD (executive function, processing speed, arousal(More)