John C. Caldwell

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The persistence of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa, while all other world regions have been able to control population growth, represents a grave threat. Tradtional explanations for this phenomenon--e.g., lower levels of income, education, health, and urbanization--are not adequate, given the fact that many Asian countries have been able to reduce(More)
Searching for an optimum solution to the Bangladesh arsenic crisis: Thirty years ago Bangladesh experienced very high levels of infant and child mortality, much of it due to water-borne disease in deltaic conditions where surface water was highly polluted. In what appeared to be one of the great public health achievements, 95% of the population were(More)
Summary In much of the developing world, especially among rural populations who usually are the majority, field researchers find that fertility is high and fairly stable and that there is little evidence either that high-fertility parents are relatively economically disadvantaged or that they believe themselves to be so. On the other hand most of modern(More)
The paper defines 'health transition' and outlines the development of recent research programmes. Evidence is reviewed as to the cultural, social and behavioural determinants of health in the Third World, and the extent to which they interact with the provision of health services in reducing mortality. Specific attention is given to the impact on mortality(More)
Most of the new drugs reaching the market today are single enantiomers, rather than the racemic mixtures that dominated up to ten years ago. Many of the new single-enantiomer drugs were developed as such, but there are also important examples of new single-enantiomer drugs derived from 'chiral switches' of established racemates. Indeed, a well-timed chiral(More)
Very limited knowledge is available about African women's control over their sexual relations with husbands or other stable partners in situations where there is a high risk of STDs and HIV/AIDS. Such control must be seen as encompassing women's control over their sexuality and reproduction as well as the broader areas over which they can make decisions.(More)
Health-treatment decisions, in much of the world, are affected by the family's ability to meet the cost. In West Africa the situation is more complex because husbands and wives typically have separate budgets. This article reports an exploration of the impact on treatment of divided family budgets in Nigeria where health services now charge for prescribed(More)
Summary Although sexual abstinence has probably been the single most important factor in restricting human fertility, Western researchers have tended to regard it as a phenomenon mostly found outside marriage. The research reported here was carried out amongst the Yoruba, a sub Saharan people, among whom it is more desirable in terms of social stability(More)