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Journals and Conferences
Temperatures obtained from early Cassini infrared observations of Titan show a stratopause at an altitude of 310 kilometers (and 186 kelvin at 15 degrees S). Stratospheric temperatures are coldest in the winter northern hemisphere, with zonal winds reaching 160 meters per second. The concentrations of several stratospheric organic compounds are enhanced at… (More)
Stratospheric temperatures on Saturn imply a strong decay of the equatorial winds with altitude. If the decrease in winds reported from recent Hubble Space Telescope images is not a temporal change, then the features tracked must have been at least 130 kilometers higher than in earlier studies. Saturn's south polar stratosphere is warmer than predicted from… (More)
The Earth's equatorial stratosphere shows oscillations in which the east-west winds reverse direction and the temperatures change cyclically with a period of about two years. This phenomenon, called the quasi-biennial oscillation, also affects the dynamics of the mid- and high-latitude stratosphere and weather in the lower atmosphere. Ground-based… (More)
For accurate calibration of Fourier transform spectrometers we must constrain or resample the interferogram data to an invariant sampling comb. This can become challenging when instrument self-emission is significant and beam splitter absorption is present. The originally-sampled interferogram center-burst position can move due not only to sampling comb… (More)
A cryogenic Fourier transform spectrometer has been built to measure thermal emission of the earth's limb from a balloon-borne platform. Liquid nitrogen cooling of the spectrometer and liquid helium cooling of the detectors has provided sufficient sensitivity to detect, at 5-15 microm, fifteen molecular species relevant to stratospheric ozone chemistry. The… (More)
The Composite Infrared Spectrometer observed Jupiter in the thermal infrared during the swing-by of the Cassini spacecraft. Results include the detection of two new stratospheric species, the methyl radical and diacetylene, gaseous species present in the north and south auroral infrared hot spots; determination of the variations with latitude of acetylene… (More)
Recently it has been a topic of some discussion that the phase associated with part of the self-emission of a Fourier-transform spectrometer may differ neither by 0 nor by pi rad from the phase of an external target if there is absorption in the beam splitter. The conventional interpretation of this has been to separate the self-emission into three terms:… (More)
We show that an artificially grown diamond plate serves as a very broadband beam splitter from approximately 7 mum, where the intrinsic diamond absorption becomes important, to the submillimeter region (a 250-mum wavelength or longer).
Rapid automated frequency response of IR detectors can be measured to get responsivity, noise, and NEP using multiple harmonics of the IR detector response.
Introduction: The lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron/sub-micron size dust grains formed by meteoritic impact over billions of years. The fine dust grains are levitated and transported on the lunar surface, as indicated by the transient dust clouds observed over the lunar horizon during the Apollo 17 mission [1-5] Theoretical models… (More)