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X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is a disorder associated with primary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The gene responsible for X-linked AHC, DAX1, encodes a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. We studied an extended kindred with AHC and HH in which two males (the proband and his nephew) were affected(More)
BACKGROUND The genetic causes of nonsyndromic ovarian insufficiency are largely unknown. A nuclear receptor, NR5A1 (also called steroidogenic factor 1), is a key transcriptional regulator of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-steroidogenic axis. Mutation of NR5A1 causes 46,XY disorders of sex development, with or without adrenal failure, but(More)
The transcription factor SOX2 is expressed most notably in the developing CNS and placodes, where it plays critical roles in embryogenesis. Heterozygous de novo mutations in SOX2 have previously been associated with bilateral anophthalmia/microphthalmia, developmental delay, short stature, and male genital tract abnormalities. Here we investigated the role(More)
Although delayed puberty is relatively common and often familial, its molecular and pathophysiologic basis is poorly understood. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms underlying some forms of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) are clearer, following the description of mutations in the genes KAL, GNRHR, and PROP1. Mutations in another gene, DAX1 (AHC), cause(More)
Mutations in the DAX1 gene cause X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG). In affected boys, primary adrenal insufficiency occurs soon after birth or during early childhood; HHG is recognized at the expected time of puberty. In this report, we describe the novel phenotype of a man who presented with apparently(More)
Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, Ad4BP, encoded by NR5A1) is a key regulator of adrenal and reproductive development and function. Based upon the features found in Nr5a1 null mice, initial attempts to identify SF-1 changes in humans focused on those rare individuals with primary adrenal failure, a 46,XY karyotype, complete gonadal dysgenesis and Müllerian(More)
Mutations in DAX1 [dosage-sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) critical region on the X chromosome gene 1; NR0B1] cause X-linked AHC, a disease characterized by primary adrenal failure in infancy or childhood and reproductive abnormalities later in life. Most of these patients have nonsense or frameshift mutations that cause premature(More)
Mutations in the orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 cause X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. Affected boys usually present with primary adrenal failure in early infancy or childhood. Impaired sexual development because of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism becomes apparent at the time of puberty. We report adult-onset adrenal hypoplasia congenita in a patient who(More)
CONTEXT Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1, Ad4BP) is a master regulator of adrenal development and steroidogenesis. Defects in several known targets of SF-1 can cause adrenal disorders in humans. OBJECTIVE We aimed to identify novel targets of SF-1 in the human adrenal. These factors could be important regulators of adrenal development and(More)