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The object of this study was to determine the relative importance of low birth weight, preterm birth, low maternal age, household size, exposure to maternal smoking, personal smoking at 16 yrs of age, early termination of breastfeeding and socioeconomic status in the aetiology of wheezing illness in the first 5 yrs of life, and on the persistence of this(More)
This study investigated the long-term effects of social disadvantage on academic achievement and on subsequent attainments in adulthood. The study drew on data collected for over 30,000 individuals born 12 years apart, following their development from birth to adulthood. The pathways that link social disadvantage to individual development across the life(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether changes in certain perinatal and social factors explain the increased prevalence of hay fever and eczema among British adolescents between 1974 and 1986. DESIGN Two prospective birth cohort studies. SETTING England, Wales, and Scotland. SUBJECTS 11,195 children born 3-9 March 1958 and 9387 born 5-11 April 1970. MAIN(More)
This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on(More)
Recent investigations have highlighted associations between maternal smoking in pregnancy and antisocial behaviour in offspring, and suggested the possibility of a causal effect. We used data from the 1970 British birth cohort study (BCS70) to examine these links in a large. population-based sample studied prospectively from birth to age 16. We found a(More)
BACKGROUND Data from two national British birth cohorts were used to measure the increase in prevalence of wheezing illness at age 16 between 1974 and 1986, and to investigate the role of several potential risk factors in the increase. METHODS The occurrence of self-reported asthma or wheezy bronchitis within the past year, and the frequency of attacks of(More)
Individuals make choices in, and adjust to, a world of work that is often a moving target. Because work is so central to human functioning, and transitions in and out of work can have major mental health repercussions, the authors argue that applied psychologists in health services need to understand those transitions. This article focuses on the different(More)