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Cellulose, an abundant, crystalline polysaccharide, is central to plant morphogenesis and to many industries. Chemical and ultrastructural analyses together with map-based cloning indicate that the RSW1 locus of Arabidopsis encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase. The cloned gene complements the rsw1 mutant whose temperature-sensitive allele is(More)
Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) is characterised by the development of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and various other cancers, and is caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. The discovery of these genes, 15 years ago, has led to the identification of large numbers of affected(More)
BACKGROUND Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a well-described inherited syndrome, which is responsible for <1% of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. The syndrome is characterised by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomas in the colorectum. Almost all patients will develop CRC if they are not identified and treated at an early stage. The(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 9p21 are associated with coronary artery disease, diabetes, and multiple cancers. Risk SNPs are mainly non-coding, suggesting that they influence expression and may act in cis. We examined the association between 56 SNPs in this region and peripheral blood expression of the three nearest genes CDKN2A,(More)
We describe here a previously unknown, dominantly inherited, late-onset basal ganglia disease, variably presenting with extrapyramidal features similar to those of Huntington's disease (HD) or parkinsonism. We mapped the disorder, by linkage analysis, to 19q13.3, which contains the gene for ferritin light polypeptide (FTL). We found an adenine insertion at(More)
Endoglin (CD105) is expressed on the surface of endothelial and haematopoietic cells in mammals and binds TGFbeta isoforms 1 and 3 in combination with the signaling complex of TGFbeta receptors types I and II. Endoglin expression increases during angiogenesis, wound healing, and inflammation, all of which are associated with TGFbeta signaling and(More)
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS, MIM175200) is an autosomal dominant condition defined by the development of characteristic polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract and mucocutaneous pigmentation. The majority of patients that meet the clinical diagnostic criteria have a causative mutation in the STK11 gene, which is located at 19p13.3. The cancer risks in(More)
Clues regarding candidate genes which influence susceptibility to spina bifida and anencephaly come from the identification of folate-associated risk factors and from studies of mouse mutants showing neural tube anomalies. On this basis we selected five candidate genes; CBS, MS, MTHFR, T (Brachyury) and BRCA1 for genetic analysis in 31 Dutch and 48 British(More)
BACKGROUND Observational studies report reduced colorectal cancer in regular aspirin consumers. Randomised controlled trials have shown reduced risk of adenomas but none have employed prevention of colorectal cancer as a primary endpoint. The CAPP2 trial aimed to investigate the antineoplastic effects of aspirin and a resistant starch in carriers of Lynch(More)
Vertebrates position unpaired organs of the chest and abdomen asymmetrically along the left-right (LR) body axis. Each structure comes to lie non-randomly with respect to the midline in an overall position designated situs solitus, exemplified in humans by placement of the heart, stomach and spleen consistently to the left. Aberrant LR axis development can(More)