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This paper presents a simple yet biologically-grounded model for the neural control of Caenorhabditis elegans forward locomotion. We identify a minimal circuit within the C. elegans ventral cord that is likely to be sufficient to generate and sustain forward locomotion in vivo. This limited subcircuit appears to contain no obvious central pattern generated(More)
Current bee population declines and colony failures are well documented yet poorly understood and no single factor has been identified as a leading cause. The evidence is equivocal and puzzling: for instance, many pathogens and parasites can be found in both failing and surviving colonies and field pesticide exposure is typically sublethal. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND Superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) is an increasingly common tumor in fair-skinned populations throughout the world. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier that induces cytokines including interferons, has been shown in preliminary studies to have an effect when applied topically to BCC. OBJECTIVE We conducted a multicenter, randomized,(More)
There is increasing appreciation that hosts in natural populations are subject to infection by multiple parasite species. Yet the epidemiological and ecological processes determining the outcome of mixed infections are poorly understood. Here, we use two intracellular gut parasites (Microsporidia), one exotic and one co-evolved in the western honeybee (Apis(More)
This paper presents a simple yet biologicallygrounded model of the C. elegans neural circuit for forward locomotive control. The model considers a limited subset of the C. elegans nervous system, within a minimal two-dimensional environment. Despite its reductionist approach, this model is sufficiently rich to generate patterns of undulations that are(More)
The structure of many biological, social and technological systems can usefully be described in terms of complex networks. Although often portrayed as fixed in time, such networks are inherently dynamic, as the edges that join nodes are cut and rewired, and nodes themselves update their states. Understanding the structure of these networks requires us to(More)
A computer simulation model, can produce some interesting and surprising results which one would not expect from initial analysis of the algorithm and data. We question however, whether the description of such a computer simulation modelling procedure (data + algorithm + results) can constitute an explanation as to why the algorithm produces such an effect.(More)
The development of artificial personalities requires that we develop a further understanding of how personality is communicated. This can be done through developing humanrobot interaction (HRI). In this paper we report on the development of the SpiderCrab robot. This uses an interlingua based on Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) to intermediate a human-robot(More)
One of the most tractable organisms for the study of nervous systems is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, whose locomotion in particular has been the subject of a number of models. In this paper we present a first integrated neuro-mechanical model of forward locomotion. We find that a previous neural model is robust to the addition of a body with(More)
Language has functions that transcend the transmission of information and varies with social context. To find out how language and social network structure interlink, we studied communication on Twitter, a broadly-used online messaging service. We show that the network emerging from user communication can be structured into a hierarchy of communities, and(More)