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BACKGROUND The likelihood of distant recurrence in patients with breast cancer who have no involved lymph nodes and estrogen-receptor-positive tumors is poorly defined by clinical and histopathological measures. METHODS We tested whether the results of a reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of 21 prospectively selected genes in(More)
BACKGROUND In 1976, we initiated a randomized trial to determine whether lumpectomy with or without radiation therapy was as effective as total mastectomy for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. METHODS A total of 1851 women for whom follow-up data were available and nodal status was known underwent randomly assigned treatment consisting of total(More)
National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Protocol B-18 was initiated in 1988 to determine whether four cycles of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide given preoperatively improve survival and disease-free survival (DFS) when compared with the same chemotherapy given postoperatively. Secondary aims included the evaluation of preoperative(More)
OBJECTIVE Although there is growing awareness of the long-term cognitive effects of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI; eg, sports concussions), whether repeated concussions cause long-term cognitive deficits remains controversial. Moreover, whether cognitive deficits depend on increased amyloid β deposition and tau phosphorylation or are(More)
BACKGROUND Previously reported information from B-14, a National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, demonstrated that patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer and negative axillary lymph nodes experienced a prolonged benefit from 5 years of tamoxifen therapy. When these women(More)
BACKGROUND Overexpression of the erbB-2 protein by breast cancer cells has been suggested to be a predictor of response to doxorubicin. A retrospective study was designed to test this hypothesis. METHODS In National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol B-11, patients with axillary lymph node-positive, hormone receptor-negative breast cancer(More)
BACKGROUND In women with breast cancer, the role of radical mastectomy, as compared with less extensive surgery, has been a matter of debate. We report 25-year findings of a randomized trial initiated in 1971 to determine whether less extensive surgery with or without radiation therapy was as effective as the Halsted radical mastectomy. METHODS A total of(More)
BACKGROUND Findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-14 and B-20 trials showed that tamoxifen benefited women with oestrogen-receptor-positive tumours and negative axillary nodes, and that chemotherapy plus tamoxifen was more effective than tamoxifen alone. We present long-term findings from those trials and relate them to age,(More)
BACKGROUND The B-20 study of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) was conducted to determine whether chemotherapy plus tamoxifen would be of greater benefit than tamoxifen alone in the treatment of patients with axillary lymph node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. METHODS Eligible patients (n = 2306) were(More)