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BACKGROUND The likelihood of distant recurrence in patients with breast cancer who have no involved lymph nodes and estrogen-receptor-positive tumors is poorly defined by clinical and histopathological measures. METHODS We tested whether the results of a reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of 21 prospectively selected genes in(More)
National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Protocol B-18 was initiated in 1988 to determine whether four cycles of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide given preoperatively improve survival and disease-free survival (DFS) when compared with the same chemotherapy given postoperatively. Secondary aims included the evaluation of preoperative(More)
BACKGROUND Contributing factors to medication errors include distractions, lack of focus, and failure to follow standard operating procedures. The nursing unit is vulnerable to a multitude of interruptions and distractions that affect the working memory and the ability to focus during critical times. Methods that prevent these environmental effects on(More)
BACKGROUND Findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-14 and B-20 trials showed that tamoxifen benefited women with oestrogen-receptor-positive tumours and negative axillary nodes, and that chemotherapy plus tamoxifen was more effective than tamoxifen alone. We present long-term findings from those trials and relate them to age,(More)
BACKGROUND Previously reported information from B-14, a National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, demonstrated that patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer and negative axillary lymph nodes experienced a prolonged benefit from 5 years of tamoxifen therapy. When these women(More)
BACKGROUND The B-20 study of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) was conducted to determine whether chemotherapy plus tamoxifen would be of greater benefit than tamoxifen alone in the treatment of patients with axillary lymph node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. METHODS Eligible patients (n = 2306) were(More)
OBJECTIVE Although there is growing awareness of the long-term cognitive effects of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI; eg, sports concussions), whether repeated concussions cause long-term cognitive deficits remains controversial. Moreover, whether cognitive deficits depend on increased amyloid β deposition and tau phosphorylation or are(More)
Undergraduates may major in either economics or mathematical economic analysis. The latter is recommended for students who intend to continue on to graduate work in economics or pursue a business or governmental job in which analytical and quantitative skills are required. The eight major fields available for graduate study are econometrics, economic(More)
Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to increase further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as(More)