John Benjamin Ochieng

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BACKGROUND Diarrhoeal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income countries. We designed the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to identify the aetiology and population-based burden of paediatric diarrhoeal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. METHODS The GEMS is a 3-year, prospective, age-stratified,(More)
BACKGROUND High rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence. We set out to compare incidence of typhoid fever in a densely populated urban slum and a rural community in Kenya, hypothesizing(More)
Diarrheal diseases continue to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in infants and young children in developing countries. There is an urgent need to better understand the contributions of novel, potentially uncultured, diarrheal pathogens to severe diarrheal disease, as well as distortions in normal gut microbiota composition that might(More)
BACKGROUND Shigella, a major diarrheal disease pathogen worldwide, is the target of vaccine development. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) investigated burden and etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrheal disease in children aged <60 months and matched controls without diarrhea during 3 years at 4 sites in Africa and 3 in Asia. Shigella was 1 of(More)
BACKGROUND Worldwide, Shigella causes an estimated 160 million infections and >1 million deaths annually. However, limited incidence data are available from African urban slums. We investigated the epidemiology of shigellosis and drug susceptibility patterns within a densely populated urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya through population-based surveillance.(More)
Infectious diarrhea leads to significant mortality in children, with 40 % of these deaths occurring in Africa. Classic human astroviruses are a well-established etiology of diarrhea. In recent years, seven novel astroviruses have been discovered (MLB1, MLB2, MLB3, VA1/HMO-C, VA2/HMO-B, VA3/HMO-A, VA4); however, there have been few studies on their(More)
Acacia senegal, a leguminous dryland tree, is economically and ecologically important to sub-Saharan Africa. Water-use efficiency (WUE) and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) are fundamental to plant productivity and survival. We quantify provenance differences in WUE, BNF, photosynthesis, biomass and gum arabic production from A. senegal assessing genetic(More)
BACKGROUND Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (tEPEC) strains were associated with mortality in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). Genetic differences in tEPEC strains could underlie some of the variability in clinical outcome. METHODS We produced draft genome sequences of all available tEPEC strains from GEMS lethal infections (LIs) and(More)
We report here the draft genome sequences of nine enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains isolated from children in Kenya who died during hospitalization with diarrhea. Each of the isolates possess the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) plasmid encoding the bundle-forming pilus, which is characteristic of EPEC. These isolates represent diverse serogroups(More)
BACKGROUND The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized. METHODS Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD]) were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and(More)