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Clinical and functional studies have strongly suggested that acetylcholine input from the nucleus basalis of Meynert is important for the cortex's adaptive response to experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of depletion of acetylcholine inputs from nucleus basalis of Meynert on experience-dependent plasticity in the cortex of(More)
An immunotoxin (IT) composed of a monoclonal antibody to the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor, 192 IgG, chemically linked to saporin, 192 IgG-saporin, was shown to selectively reduce forebrain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in the rat brain following intraventricular administration. In order to determine if the IT was killing NGF(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in the induction of innate immune responses which have been implicated in neuronal death induced by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCI/R). The present study investigated the role and mechanisms-of-action of TLR4 signaling in ischemia-induced hippocampal neuronal death. Neuronal damage, activation of the(More)
Deoxyribonucleic acid of cells undergoing apoptosis is cleaved by a calcium-dependent endonuclease into oligonucleosomal-sized fragments. These fragments can be labeled using the enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase so that the cells can be visualized immunohistochemically. Few investigators have evaluated this method in disease processes of the(More)
A monoclonal antibody to the rat nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor, 192 IgG, accumulates bilaterally and specifically in cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cells following intraventricular injection. An immunotoxin composed of 192 IgG linked to saporin (192 IgG-saporin) has been shown to destroy cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. We sought to(More)
Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), pial arteriolar diameter, and arterial blood pressure, gases, and pH were examined before and for 3 hours after fluid-percussion brain injury in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized piglets. The brain injury was induced by a percussion of 2.28 +/- 0.06 atm applied for 23.7 +/- 0.5 msec to the right parietal cortex. Regional(More)
Although the emergency physician often treats patients with multiple injuries, there are relatively few clinically relevant models that mimic these situations. To describe the changes after a hemorrhagic insult superimposed on traumatic brain injury (TBI), anesthetized and ventilated juvenile pigs were assigned to 35% hemorrhage (35H), TBI (via fluid(More)
Recent studies have shown that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study was to investigate the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in acute focal cerebral I/R injury. Cerebral infarct size, neurological function and mortality were evaluated. NFsmall ka, CyrillicB binding activity, phosphorylation of Ismall ka,(More)
A reproducible model of global cerebral ischemia in mice is essential for elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) of neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the present study, we developed a mouse model of transient global ischemia induced by occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries and the left subclavian artery(More)
There is a paucity of studies, clinical and experimental, attesting to the benefit of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) directed pressor therapy following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study evaluates this therapy in a swine model of TBI and hypotension. Forty-five anesthetized and ventilated swine received TBI followed by a 45% blood volume(More)