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Basal ganglia disorders are a heterogeneous group of clinical syndromes with a common anatomic locus within the basal ganglia. To account for the variety of clinical manifestations associated with insults to various parts of the basal ganglia we propose a model in which specific types of basal ganglia disorders are associated with changes in the function of(More)
We compared the number of CAG repeats, the age at death, and the severity of neuropathology in 89 Huntington's disease brains. We found a linear correlation between the CAG repeat number and the quotient of the degree of atrophy in the striatum (the brain region most severely affected in Huntington's disease) divided by age at death, with an intercept at(More)
The anatomical distributions and affinity states of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors were compared in the rat central nervous system using quantitative autoradiography. [3H]SCH23390 and [3H]spiperone (in the presence of 100 nM mianserin) were used to label the D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. The densities of D1 and D2 receptors displayed a positive(More)
The distribution and density of dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors were studied in the basal ganglia of adult turtles, pigeons, rats, cats, and monkeys. Dopamine receptors were measured in vitro by quantitative autoradiography in alternate sections processed for D-1 and D-2 receptor subtypes and compared to adjacent sections stained for acetylcholinesterase(More)
Loss of neurotransmitter receptors, especially glutamate and dopamine receptors, is one of the pathologic hallmarks of brains of patients with Huntington disease (HD). Transgenic mice that express exon 1 of an abnormal human HD gene (line R6/2) develop neurologic symptoms at 9-11 weeks of age through an unknown mechanism. Analysis of glutamate receptors(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is characterized by the loss of striatal projection neurons, which constitute the vast majority of striatal neurons. To determine whether there is differential loss among different populations of striatal projection neurons, the integrity of the axon terminal plexuses arising from the different populations of substance P-containing(More)
Quantitative autoradiography was used to characterize the pharmacological specificity and anatomical distributions of subtypes of L-[3H]glutamate binding sites in rat brain. One population of sites was sensitive to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and other compounds thought to be specific for the NMDA receptor. This site was enriched in stratum radiatum of(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) couple the actions of glutamate to intracellular second messenger systems through G-proteins. The mGluRs play an important role in the regulation of basal ganglia function. Ligand binding studies have revealed that the basal ganglia contain at least two pharmacological types of metabotropic binding sites. Agonists(More)
Glutamate is an important neurotransmitter in the circuitry of the basal ganglia. Of the four pharmacological classes of receptors that may mediate the actions of glutamate, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type is of particular interest insofar as it has been implicated in the neural processes underlying long-term synaptic plasticity as well as excitotoxic(More)
Neuropeptide immunohistochemistry was used to test several hypotheses of the anatomical bases of chorea and rigidity-akinesia. To test the hypothesis that elevated concentration of striatal somatostatin causes chorea, we visually compared the density of striatal neurons containing somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in brains affected by choreic or(More)