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IL-33 is constitutively expressed in epithelial barrier tissues, such as skin. Although increased expression of IL-33/IL-33R has been correlated with fibrotic disorders, such as scleroderma and progressive systemic sclerosis, the direct consequences of IL-33 release in skin has not been reported. To determine the effects of dysregulated IL-33 signaling in(More)
Tumor immune surveillance and cancer immunotherapies are thought to depend on the intratumoral infiltration of activated CD8(+) T cells. Intratumoral CD8(+) T cells are rare and lack activity. IL-10 is thought to contribute to the underlying immune suppressive microenvironment. Defying those expectations we demonstrate that IL-10 induces several essential(More)
The melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (mda-7/IL24) is a unique member of the IL-10 family of cytokines, with ubiquitous tumor cell proapoptotic activity. Transduction of tumor or normal cells with the mda-7 gene results in secretion of glycosylated MDA-7 protein. Recent data indicate that secreted MDA-7 protein functions as a pro-Th1 cytokine and(More)
The melanoma differentiation-associated gene (mda-7; approved gene symbol IL24) is a tumor suppressor gene whose protein expression in normal cells is restricted to the immune system and to melanocytes. Recent studies have shown that mda-7 gene transfer inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in melanoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, and other tumor types(More)
BACKGROUND Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with a propensity to rapidly metastasize. The PTEN gene encodes a phosphatase with an unusual dual specificity for proteins and lipids. Mutations of PTEN have been found in various human cancers, including glioblastoma, prostate, breast, lung, and melanoma. Here we investigate in vitro the effects of blocking PI3K(More)
The melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7) cDNA was isolated by virtue of being induced during melanoma differentiation. Initial gene transfer studies convincingly demonstrated potent antitumor effects of mda-7. Further studies showed that the mechanism of antitumor activity was due to induction of apoptosis. Most striking was the(More)
The melanoma differentiation-associated gene 7 (mda-7), also called interleukin (IL)-24, suppresses the growth of some cancers in vitro and in vivo as a result of the ectopic expression of its protein. However, the function of the secreted form of the protein in cancer has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the(More)
During the last decade, it has become clear that the mammalian immune system is able to recognize and partially suppress nascent tumors. Human T cells specific to oncogenes and onco-fetal antigens are present in human cancer patients and their tumors. At the same time, molecular links between tumor-associated inflammation and tumor progression have been(More)
The melanoma differentiation-associated gene 7 (mda-7) has been studied primarily in the context of its tumor suppressor activity. Although mda-7 has been designated as IL-24 based on its gene location in the IL-10 locus and its mRNA expression in leukocytes, no functional evidence supporting this cytokine designation exists. To further characterize(More)
IL-10 has been classically defined as a broad-spectrum immunosuppressant and is thought to facilitate the development of regulatory CD4(+) T cells. IL-10 is believed to represent one of the major suppressive factors secreted by IDO(+)FoxP3(+)CD4(+) Tregs. Contrary to this view, we have previously reported that PEGylated recombinant IL-10 (PEG-rIL-10)(More)