John B. Lloyd

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Both phagocytosis (of particles) and pinocytosis (of solutes) occur in macrophages. It is not known, however, whether particles, if they are small enough, can enter by pinocytosis, nor whether there is a minimum size of particle capable of triggering phagocytic uptake. These questions have been investigated by studying, in vitro, the uptake by rat(More)
Accumulation of [14C]desferrioxamine by rat visceral yolk sac in vitro has been compared with that of [14C]sucrose, a probe for fluid-phase pinocytosis. Kinetic parameters for both substrates are closely similar, as are the effects of inhibitors. It is concluded from these data, and from theoretical considerations, that desferrioxamine cannot enter cells(More)
N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers bearing galactosamine residues accumulate in the liver after intravenous administration to rats (Duncan, R., Kopecek, J., Rejmanová, P. and Lloyd, J.B. (1983) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 755, 518-521). In this study HPMA copolymers bearing pendent galactosamine residues (1.0-11.6 mol%) were injected(More)
The rat visceral yolk sac is active in pinocytosis. Macromolecules accumulated by the tissue are, in general, routed to the lysosomes, where they either accumulate (if non-digestible by the lysosomal enzymes) or are degraded to their monomeric components. The yolk sac cells engage in adsorptive pinocytosis, which leads to the preferential uptake of(More)
A mechanism of mammalian teratogenesis involving inhibition of embryotrophic nutrition is suggested and exemplified by the action of trypan blue on pregnant rats. There is evidence for the localization of trypan blue in heterolysosomes of the epithelium of the visceral yolk sac, and our experiments indicate that the dye is an inhibitor of a selection of(More)
Soluble copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) were prepared containing either oligopeptide side chains terminating in rho-nitroaniline, or oligopeptide sequences forming crosslinks between polymer chains. Such copolymers have potential as targetable drug carriers and already it has been shown that oligopeptide side chains and oligopeptide(More)
The rates of uptake of 125I-labelled poly(vinylpyrrolidone), [14C]sucrose and colloidal [198Au]gold by 17.5-day rat yolk sac cultured in vitro were studied. Over a 6.5h period each substrate was accumulated at a constant and reproducible rate of approx. 2microliter/h per mg of protein. After accumulation in vitro, the three substances were released from the(More)
Conceptuses from 9.5-day pregnant rats were cultured for 48 h in heat-inactivated homologous serum to which leupeptin, a specific inhibitor of the lysosomal cysteine-proteinases, was added for the final or the penultimate 6 h. The presence of leupeptin (25 micrograms/ml or above) increased the protein content of yolk sacs at harvesting to approximately(More)