John B. Leslie

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BACKGROUND About one in four patients suffers from postoperative nausea and vomiting. Fortunately, risk scores have been developed to better manage this outcome in hospitalized patients, but there is currently no risk score for postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) in ambulatory surgical patients. METHODS We conducted a prospective multicenter study of(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the impact of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) on healthcare resource use, work productivity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients receiving chronic opioid therapy. DESIGN Data were collected via Internet questionnaires during the international National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) 2004 from individuals(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, dosage, and administration of alvimopan, a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist, in the management of postoperative ileus (POI). DATA SOURCES A literature search (1980-October 2004) applying the terms alvimopan, ADL 8-2698, and LY246736 was conducted using(More)
Transdermal scopolamine, a patch system that delivers 1.5 mg of scopolamine gradually over 72 hours following an initial bolus, was approved in the United States in 2001 for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in adults. Scopolamine (hyoscine) is a selective competitive anatagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Low serum(More)
The tolerance effects of continuous intrathecal infusions of opioids at mu and delta receptors were studied in rats. These effects were compared to those of chronic systemic morphine. A chronic intrathecal infusion of the relatively selective delta agonist, [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE), produced a larger degree of tolerance to DADLE than to the highly(More)
All mammalian tissue investigated to date is capable of eicosanoid biosynthesis in response to various activating stimuli. While the importance of these metabolites as major mediators of many normal physiological processes and some pathophysiological conditions has not been proven, it is evident that these compounds are at least important modulators of many(More)
UNLABELLED Despite the efficacy of antifibrinolytic drugs in reducing bleeding after cardiac surgery, concerns remain regarding their potential to promote thrombosis. We examined the effect of the antifibrinolytic drug, epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) on fibrinolysis and thrombin generation during cardiac surgery. Forty-one adults undergoing primary(More)
Postoperative ileus (POI), a transient cessation of coordinated bowel function after surgery, is an important health care problem. The etiology of POI is multifactorial and related to both the surgical and anesthetic pathways chosen. Opioids used to manage surgical pain can exacerbate POI, delaying gastrointestinal (GI) recovery. Peripherally acting(More)
Patients undergoing bowel resection or other major abdominal surgery experience a period of delayed gastrointestinal recovery associated with increased postoperative morbidity and longer hospital length of stay. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, bloating, pain, intolerance to solid or liquid food, and inability to pass stool or gas.(More)