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The release of potentially neurotoxic molecules by HIV-infected brain macrophages is accompanied by neuronal injury and death that results in the development of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Among the potential neurotoxins implicated in the development of HAD is the HIV-1 transactivating protein, Tat. To investigate the mechanism by which Tat causes(More)
BACKGROUND MS is common in people of northern European ethnicity who live in northern geographic areas; however, MS is rarely identified among aboriginal peoples living in the same areas. OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence, clinical features, HLA type, and viral infections associated with MS among aboriginals in Manitoba, Canada. METHODS A(More)
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been implicated as causative agents in diseases characterized by inflammation and macrophage activation, such as multiple sclerosis. Because monocyte activation and differentiation influence retroviral transcription and replication, we investigated the contribution of these processes to the expression of four HERV(More)
The nucleoside adenosine has been shown to control the production of proinflammatory molecules through its actions on cell surface purine receptors. Previously, we have reported that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression and exhibits diminished function in patients with(More)
The release of neurotoxins by activated brain macrophages or microglia is one mechanism proposed to contribute to the development of neurological disease following infection by lentiviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Since molecular diversity in the lentiviral envelope gene influences the expression of host molecules implicated in(More)
Lentiruses cause neurological disease depending on the virus strain and its neurotropism, yet it remains uncertain to what the impact of infectious virus quantity in the brain early in infection is on the subsequent development of neurological disease or neurovirulence. We investigated the relationship between infectious virus input titer and the resulting(More)
Identifying physiological ligands is necessary for annotating new protein structures, yet this presents a significant challenge to biologists and pharmaceutical chemists. Here we develop a predictor of cholesterol and cholate binding that works across diverse protein families, extending beyond sequence motif-based prediction. This approach combines(More)
mapping of the human amygdala, hippocampal region and entorhinal cortex: intersubject variability and probability maps. review of the diagnosis, pharmacologic treatment, and economic aspects of anxiety disorders. Prim care companion. Innate and conditioned reactions to threat in rats with amygdaloid lesions. A. Sex effects in defensive behaviors: baseline(More)