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The release of potentially neurotoxic molecules by HIV-infected brain macrophages is accompanied by neuronal injury and death that results in the development of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Among the potential neurotoxins implicated in the development of HAD is the HIV-1 transactivating protein, Tat. To investigate the mechanism by which Tat causes(More)
BACKGROUND MS is common in people of northern European ethnicity who live in northern geographic areas; however, MS is rarely identified among aboriginal peoples living in the same areas. OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence, clinical features, HLA type, and viral infections associated with MS among aboriginals in Manitoba, Canada. METHODS A(More)
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been implicated as causative agents in diseases characterized by inflammation and macrophage activation, such as multiple sclerosis. Because monocyte activation and differentiation influence retroviral transcription and replication, we investigated the contribution of these processes to the expression of four HERV(More)
The nucleoside adenosine has been shown to control the production of proinflammatory molecules through its actions on cell surface purine receptors. Previously, we have reported that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression and exhibits diminished function in patients with(More)
The release of neurotoxins by activated brain macrophages or microglia is one mechanism proposed to contribute to the development of neurological disease following infection by lentiviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Since molecular diversity in the lentiviral envelope gene influences the expression of host molecules implicated in(More)
Lentiruses cause neurological disease depending on the virus strain and its neurotropism, yet it remains uncertain to what the impact of infectious virus quantity in the brain early in infection is on the subsequent development of neurological disease or neurovirulence. We investigated the relationship between infectious virus input titer and the resulting(More)
The effects of varying dietary protein concentrations on the metabolism of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) to mutagenic products by male C57BL/6 X C3H F mice were assayed by in vivo and in vitro methods. DMH and its metabolite, azoxymethane (AOM), did not increase the mutation frequency of Salmonella typhimurium (strain G-46) in vitro alone or in the presence(More)
The Synthesizer-Generator (or simply Syn-Gen) is a software tool for building context sensitive editors. It has been applied to a wide variety of applications, ranging from programing language editors to editors that insure balanced chemical equations. The context sensitivity is provided by using attribute grammars. We provide an introduction to Syn-Gen and(More)