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We have cloned and characterized the first human isozyme in a new family of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, PDE9A. By sequence homology in the catalytic domain, PDE9A is almost equidistant from all eight known mammalian PDE families but is most similar to PDE8A (34% amino acid identity) and least like PDE5A (28% amino acid identity). We report the(More)
Pharmacological analysis of the effects of leukotriene D4 (LTD4) antagonists on contraction of guinea pig airway smooth muscle to leukotrienes reveals the presence of two subtypes of the LTD4 receptor. This finding is, however, inconsistent with [3H]LTD4 equilibrium binding results, which show no evidence of a heterogeneity of pulmonary [3H]LTD4 binding(More)
To determine the distribution of leukotriene (LT) C4 and LTD4 receptors and functional significance of each receptor, we used [3H]LTC4 and [3H]LTD4 to measure the binding activity in various tissue homogenates and to correlate the relative ability of the LT agonists to inhibit binding with their contractile responses in guinea-pig uterine or lung(More)
In addition to having desirable inhibitory effects on inflammation, anaphylaxis, and smooth muscle contraction, PDE-IV inhibitors also produce undesirable side effects including nausea and vomiting. In general, compounds that inhibit PDE-IV also potently displace [3H]rolipram from a high-affinity binding site in rat cortex. While this binding site has not(More)
Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of ATR-107, a fully human monoclonal anti-IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) antibody, administered as ascending single doses, subcutaneously or intravenously, was evaluated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in healthy subjects. The dose levels were 3-300 mg by SC and 30-120 mg by IV. The(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an issue of global concern, and studies are ongoing to identify new therapies that are both effective and safe. PF-4878691 is a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist modeled so as to dissociate its antiviral activities from its inflammatory activities. In a proof-of-mechanism study in healthy volunteers who received doses(More)
As part of our efforts to understand the regulation of intracellular cAMP and to generate new targets for pharmacological intervention, we have cloned and characterized the first isozyme in a new family of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, PDE8A. PDE8A is most similar to PDE4 (38.5% amino acid identity in the catalytic domain), but is clearly not a(More)
IL-21 has been shown to play an important role in autoimmune diseases. ATR-107 is an antibody which directly targets the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R). To aid the clinical development of ATR-107, there is a need for understanding the mechanism of action (MOA) of this antibody when assessing target engagement in human subjects. To determine ATR-107 biological(More)
CP-105696, (+)-1-(3S,4R)-[3-(4-phenyl-benzyl)-4-hydroxy-chroman-7-yl] cyclopentane carboxylic acid, is a structurally novel, selective and potent leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor antagonist. In vitro, CP-105696 inhibited [3H]LTB4 (0.3 nM) binding to high-affinity LTB4 receptors on human neutrophils with an IC50 value of 8.42 +/- 0.26 nM. Scatchard analyses of(More)
1. The role of adrenal hormones in the regulation of the systemic and local production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha) was examined in male Balb/c mice. 2. Intraperitoneal injection of 0.3 mg E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0111:B4) led to high levels of circulating TNF alpha without stimulating TNF alpha production in the peritoneal cavity. Systemic(More)